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      Mechanisms of Lipid-Lowering Agents

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          Abstract

          Lipid-lowering agents are used with the purpose of ameliorating hyperlipoproteinemias, in order to prevent arterial disease. Lipid-lowering drugs can be classified into absorbable agents and into nonabsorbable compounds, acting within the gastrointestinal lumen. Absorbable drugs (fibric acids, nicotinic acid, probucol, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) reduce plasma very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and/or low-density lipoproteins (LDL) by a variety of mechanisms. Fibric acids, in particular, act by stimulating the catabolism of VLDL and also, as a consequence, improving LDL delipidation, thus favoring receptor uptake. Nicotinic acid and acipimox interfere with the biosynthesis of LDL and can also improve the clearance of VLDL/LDL. Probucol acts by a newly described mechanism, i.e. accelerating reverse transport of cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins to lower-density lipoproteins. Finally, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, interfering with the biosynthesis of cholesterol, can induce an increased expression of liver high-affinity lipoprotein receptors. Nonabsorbable agents (anion-exchange resins, neomycin, β-sitosterol) interrupt the recirculation of bile acids and/or reduce the absorption of cholesterol with the gut. They display a selective activity on hypercholesterolemia, again by increasing LDL receptor expression. The choice of one or more lipid-lowering agents will depend upon the patient’s phenotype, determining responsiveness to the pharmacological treatment.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CRD
          Cardiology
          10.1159/issn.0008-6312
          Cardiology
          S. Karger AG
          0008-6312
          1421-9751
          1991
          1991
          12 November 2008
          : 78
          : 3
          : 226-235
          Affiliations
          Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
          Article
          174789 Cardiology 1991;78:226–235
          10.1159/000174789
          1868500
          © 1991 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 10
          Categories
          Clinical Pharmacology

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