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      Establishment and development of ornamental grasses on green roofs and living walls

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          Abstract

          Ornamental grasses are often used in gardens to improve biodiversity and as additional aesthetical resources. However, their use in green roofs (GR) and living walls (LW) is not so widespread and it has not been studied extensively. The aim of this work is to assess the performance of seven grass species ( Imperata cylindrica ‘Red Baron’, Acorus gramineus, Stipa tenuissima ‘Pony Fails’, Carex flagellifera ‘Bronzita’, Carex oshimensis ‘Evergold’, Uncinia rubra ‘Everflame’ and Miscanthus sinensis) for their use in GR and LW. The growth of the plants was evaluated (i.e. biomass production, dimensions), as well as their visual quality and survival. C. flagellifera and C. oshimensis showed coverage levels greater than 75% and good visual quality, while A. gramineus reached 55–60%. I. cylindrica and M. sinensis showed coverages slightly below 50% in the LW, however, both performed well in the GR, though with a lower visual quality. U. rubra did not develop well, reaching the lowest coverage (below 45%) but maintaining a high visual quality. S. tenuissima also attained low coverage in the LW and presented high mortality, especially in the GR. In LW, C. oshimensis stood out in flowering, while S. tenuissima showed the highest flowering rate in GR. The species should be selected considering their characteristics and performance in order to achieve a correct appearance and development. Interspecific interactions are especially important in LW, as species with upward growth should be placed above species with fallen leaves, not below.

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          ImageJ2: ImageJ for the next generation of scientific image data

          Background ImageJ is an image analysis program extensively used in the biological sciences and beyond. Due to its ease of use, recordable macro language, and extensible plug-in architecture, ImageJ enjoys contributions from non-programmers, amateur programmers, and professional developers alike. Enabling such a diversity of contributors has resulted in a large community that spans the biological and physical sciences. However, a rapidly growing user base, diverging plugin suites, and technical limitations have revealed a clear need for a concerted software engineering effort to support emerging imaging paradigms, to ensure the software’s ability to handle the requirements of modern science. Results We rewrote the entire ImageJ codebase, engineering a redesigned plugin mechanism intended to facilitate extensibility at every level, with the goal of creating a more powerful tool that continues to serve the existing community while addressing a wider range of scientific requirements. This next-generation ImageJ, called “ImageJ2” in places where the distinction matters, provides a host of new functionality. It separates concerns, fully decoupling the data model from the user interface. It emphasizes integration with external applications to maximize interoperability. Its robust new plugin framework allows everything from image formats, to scripting languages, to visualization to be extended by the community. The redesigned data model supports arbitrarily large, N-dimensional datasets, which are increasingly common in modern image acquisition. Despite the scope of these changes, backwards compatibility is maintained such that this new functionality can be seamlessly integrated with the classic ImageJ interface, allowing users and developers to migrate to these new methods at their own pace. Conclusions Scientific imaging benefits from open-source programs that advance new method development and deployment to a diverse audience. ImageJ has continuously evolved with this idea in mind; however, new and emerging scientific requirements have posed corresponding challenges for ImageJ’s development. The described improvements provide a framework engineered for flexibility, intended to support these requirements as well as accommodate future needs. Future efforts will focus on implementing new algorithms in this framework and expanding collaborations with other popular scientific software suites. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12859-017-1934-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Urban green zones and related pollen allergy: A review. Some guidelines for designing spaces with low allergy impact

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              Amount of water runoff from different vegetation types on extensive green roofs: Effects of plant species, diversity and plant structure

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Landscape and Ecological Engineering
                Landscape Ecol Eng
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1860-1871
                1860-188X
                January 2023
                October 31 2022
                January 2023
                : 19
                : 1
                : 123-136
                Article
                10.1007/s11355-022-00527-5
                afaa55e5-b990-4761-9f08-3cb0b7fe6bb0
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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