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      Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

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          Abstract

          Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds) for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

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          Most cited references 77

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          The extracellular matrix at a glance.

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            Electrospinning: applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

             L V Knorring,  J Sill (2008)
            Despite its long history and some preliminary work in tissue engineering nearly 30 years ago, electrospinning has not gained widespread interest as a potential polymer processing technique for applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery until the last 5-10 years. This renewed interest can be attributed to electrospinning's relative ease of use, adaptability, and the ability to fabricate fibers with diameters on the nanometer size scale. Furthermore, the electrospinning process affords the opportunity to engineer scaffolds with micro to nanoscale topography and high porosity similar to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). The inherently high surface to volume ratio of electrospun scaffolds can enhance cell attachment, drug loading, and mass transfer properties. Various materials can be electrospun including: biodegradable, non-degradable, and natural materials. Electrospun fibers can be oriented or arranged randomly, giving control over both the bulk mechanical properties and the biological response to the scaffold. Drugs ranging from antibiotics and anticancer agents to proteins, DNA, and RNA can be incorporated into electrospun scaffolds. Suspensions containing living cells have even been electrospun successfully. The applications of electrospinning in tissue engineering and drug delivery are nearly limitless. This review summarizes the most recent and state of the art work in electrospinning and its uses in tissue engineering and drug delivery.
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              Perfusion-decellularized matrix: using nature's platform to engineer a bioartificial heart.

              About 3,000 individuals in the United States are awaiting a donor heart; worldwide, 22 million individuals are living with heart failure. A bioartificial heart is a theoretical alternative to transplantation or mechanical left ventricular support. Generating a bioartificial heart requires engineering of cardiac architecture, appropriate cellular constituents and pump function. We decellularized hearts by coronary perfusion with detergents, preserved the underlying extracellular matrix, and produced an acellular, perfusable vascular architecture, competent acellular valves and intact chamber geometry. To mimic cardiac cell composition, we reseeded these constructs with cardiac or endothelial cells. To establish function, we maintained eight constructs for up to 28 d by coronary perfusion in a bioreactor that simulated cardiac physiology. By day 4, we observed macroscopic contractions. By day 8, under physiological load and electrical stimulation, constructs could generate pump function (equivalent to about 2% of adult or 25% of 16-week fetal heart function) in a modified working heart preparation.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Laboratory of Microbiology and Biochemical, College of Chemistry and Food Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande, P.O. Box 474, Avenida Itália, Km 8, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS, Brazil
                2Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Food Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande, P.O. Box 474, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS, Brazil
                Author notes
                *Michele Greque de Morais: migreque@ 123456yahoo.com.br

                Academic Editor: Costantino Del Gaudio

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2014
                23 July 2014
                : 2014
                10.1155/2014/762705
                4135136
                Copyright © 2014 Michele Greque de Morais et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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