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      Lack of Long-Term Protective Effect of Antioxidant/Anti-Inflammatory Therapy in Transplant-Induced Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

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          Abstract

          Background: Alloantigen-independent factors contribute to long-term damage in renal transplant recipients, likely due to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury at transplantation (Tx). I/R injury promotes oxidative stress and inflammation resulting in endothelial injury. Methods: In this study we investigated the long-term efficacy (22 weeks) of short-term (10 day) endothelial protection therapy (EP) in ‘optimal’ donor kidneys using the male Fisher 344 rat isograft (ISO) model. ISO-EP kidneys were compared to untreated ISO (ISO-UN) kidneys. EP involved dexamethasone to donor, ex vivo treatment of the kidney with deferoxamine and tempol, and administration to the recipient of L-arginine and tempol for 10 days. Rats were sacrificed 22 weeks following Tx and compared to age-matched, normal controls. Results: Both groups of ISO Tx rats developed similar renal dysfunction and structural damage and renal NADPH-oxidase-dependent O<sub>2</sub><sup>–</sup> production was similarly elevated in ISO-UN and ISO-EP groups vs. controls. In vitro renal cortex NO synthase (NOS) activity was also similar in ISO-UN and ISO-EP rats, despite lower nNOS and eNOS protein abundance in ISO-EP. Conclusion: I/R injury-induced late graft dysfunction occurs even when optimal donors are used and when short-term EP treatment is given. Increased renal superoxide production is not prevented by short-term EP therapy.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Delayed graft function in kidney transplantation.

          Delayed graft function is a form of acute renal failure resulting in post-transplantation oliguria, increased allograft immunogenicity and risk of acute rejection episodes, and decreased long-term survival. Factors related to the donor and prerenal, renal, or postrenal transplant factors related to the recipient can contribute to this condition. From experimental studies, we have learnt that both ischaemia and reinstitution of blood flow in ischaemically damaged kidneys after hypothermic preservation activate a complex sequence of events that sustain renal injury and play a pivotal part in the development of delayed graft function. Elucidation of the pathophysiology of renal ischaemia and reperfusion injury has contributed to the development of strategies to decrease the rate of delayed graft function, focusing on donor management, organ procurement and preservation techniques, recipient fluid management, and pharmacological agents (vasodilators, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents). Several new drugs show promise in animal studies in preventing or ameliorating ischaemia-reperfusion injury and possibly delayed graft function, but definitive clinical trials are lacking. The goal of monotherapy for the prevention or treatment of is perhaps unattainable, and multidrug approaches or single drug targeting multiple signals will be the next step to reduce post-transplantation injury and delayed graft function.
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            Tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, reduces oxidant stress-mediated renal dysfunction and injury in the rat.

            The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tempol in (1) an in vivo rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury and on (2) cellular injury and death of rat renal proximal tubular (PT) cells exposed to oxidant stress in the form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Male Wistar rats underwent bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion for six hours. Tempol (30 mg/kg/h), desferrioxamine (DEF; 40 mg/kg/h), or a combination of tempol (30 mg/kg/h) and DEF (40 mg/kg/h) were administered prior to and throughout reperfusion. Plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, Na+, gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and urinary Na+ and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were measured for the assessment of renal function and reperfusion injury. Kidney myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured for assessment of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell infiltration and lipid peroxidation, respectively. Renal sections were used for histologic grading of renal injury and for immunohistochemical localization of nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS). Primary cultures of rat PT cells were incubated with H2O2 (1 mmol/L for 4 h) either in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of tempol (0.03 to 10 mmol/L), DEF (0.03 to 10 mmol/L), or a combination of tempol (3 mmol/L) or DEF (3 mmol/L). PT cell injury and death were determined by evaluating mitochondrial respiration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, respectively. In vivo, tempol significantly reduced the increase in urea, creatinine, gammaGT, AST, NAG, and FENa produced by renal ischemia/reperfusion, suggesting an improvement in both renal function and injury. Tempol also significantly reduced kidney MPO activity and MDA levels, indicating a reduction in PMN infiltration and lipid peroxidation, respectively. Tempol reduced the histologic evidence of renal damage associated with ischemia/reperfusion and caused a substantial reduction in the staining for nitrotyrosine and PARS, suggesting reduced nitrosative and oxidative stress. In vitro, tempol significantly attenuated H2O2-mediated decrease in mitochondrial respiration and increase in LDH release from rat PT cells, indicating a reduction in cell injury and death. Both in vivo and in vitro, the beneficial actions of tempol were similar to those obtained using the Fe2+ chelator DEF. However, coadministration of DEF and tempol did not produce any additional beneficial actions against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury or against oxidative stress-mediated PT cell injury/death. Our results suggest that the membrane-permeable radical scavenger, tempol, reduces the renal dysfunction and injury associated with ischemia/reperfusion of the kidney.
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              Noninvasive diagnostic tool for inflammation-induced oxidative stress using electron spin resonance spectroscopy and an extracellular cyclic hydroxylamine.

              Inflammation is one of the leading causes of the many pathological states associated with oxidative stress. A crucial role in the development of inflammation-induced oxidative stress is played by reactive oxidant species (ROS), which are very difficult to detect in vivo. One of the most sensitive and definitive methods in the detection of ROS is electron spin resonance, especially as used in conjunction with spin trapping. Unfortunately, the commonly used nitrone spin traps have a very low efficacy for trapping superoxide radicals, and their radical adducts are not stable. To address this deficiency, we have developed negatively charged cyclic hydroxylamines such as 1-hydroxy-4-phosphonooxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (PP-H) for the detection of reactive oxidant species as a diagnostic tool for extracellular inflammation-induced oxidative stress. We used inflammation induced by a bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a model. ROS formation was tested in cultured macrophages, in blood and in vivo. PP-H reacts with reactive oxidant species generating the stable nitroxide radical 4-phosphonooxy-TEMPO. It was shown that a 5-h treatment of macrophages with LPS (1 microg/ml) leads to a threefold increase in superoxide formation as demonstrated using superoxide dismutase. Formation of reactive oxidant species 5 h after LPS (1 mg/kg) treatment of Fischer rats was analyzed in arterial blood; formation of reactive oxidant species in LPS-treated animals increased by a factor of 2.2 and was dependent upon the LPS dose. Diphenyleneiodonium (0.1 mM) inhibited formation of LPS-stimulated reactive oxidant species by 80%. We suggest that this test could be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for inflammation-induced oxidative stress.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2006
                July 2006
                19 July 2006
                : 26
                : 3
                : 213-217
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., USA; Departments of bPulmonology, and cPediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; and dDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga., USA
                Article
                93587 PMC2756816 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:213–217
                10.1159/000093587
                PMC2756816
                16720982
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 15, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/93587
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Kidney transplant, Antioxidant, Nitric oxide, Ischemia/reperfusion

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