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      Exploring the Gingival Recession Surgical Treatment Modalities: A Literature Review


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          Gingival recessions present complex soft tissue pathology, with a multiple aetiology and a high prevalence which increases with age. They are defined as an exposure of the root surface of the teeth as a result of the apical migration of the gingival margin beyond the cementum-enamel junction, causing functional and aesthetic disturbances to the affected individuals. Aiming to ensure complete root coverage and satisfying aesthetic outcomes, a wide range of surgical techniques have been proposed through the decades for the treatment of the gingival recessions. The following literature review attempts to provide a comprehensive, structured and up-to-date summary of the relevant literature regarding these surgical techniques, aiming to emphasise for each technique its indications, its long-term success and predictability, its advantages and disadvantages about each other.

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          Most cited references108

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          Subepithelial connective tissue graft technique for root coverage.

          This article describes the use of the subepithelial connective tissue graft as a donor source for root coverage. The success of these grafts has been attributed to the double-blood supply at the recipient site from the underlying connective tissue base and the overlying recipient flap. Four cases have been illustrated to demonstrate the versatility of this procedure for areas of single or multiple root coverage especially in the maxillary arch, coverage of existing crown margins and areas requiring a combination of ridge augmentation and root coverage. An increase of 2 to 6 mm of root coverage has been achieved in 56 cases over 4 years with minimal sulcus depth and no recurrence of recession. The donor site is a closed wound which produces less postoperative discomfort.
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            The etiology and prevalence of gingival recession.

            Gingival recession in its localized or generalized form is an undesirable condition resulting in root exposure. The result often is not esthetic and may lead to sensitivity and root caries. Exposed root surfaces also are prone to abrasion. The purpose of this article is to describe the prevalence, etiology and factors associated with gingival recession. The authors reviewed cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of gingival recession and found that they correlated the prevalence of recession to trauma, sex, malpositioned teeth, inflammation and tobacco consumption. The recent surveys they reviewed revealed that 88 percent of people 65 years of age and older and 50 percent of people 18 to 64 years of age have one or more sites with recession. The presence and extent of gingival recession also increased with age. More than 50 percent of the population has one or more sites with gingival recession of 1 mm or more. The prevalence of gingival recession was found in patients with both good and poor oral hygiene. It has been proposed that recession is multifactorial, with one type being associated with anatomical factors and another type with physiological or pathological factors. Recession has been found more frequently on buccal surfaces than on other aspects of the teeth. Dentists should be knowledgeable about the etiology, prevalence and associating factors of gingival recession, as well as treatment options, so that appropriate treatment modalities can be offered to patients. Treatments for gingival recession include gingival grafting, guided tissue regeneration and orthodontic therapy. Such treatments typically result in esthetic improvement, elimination of sensitivity and a decreased risk of developing root caries.
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              The natural history of periodontal disease in man: prevalence, severity, and extent of gingival recession.

              This paper describes the occurrence and levels of gingival recession in 2 cohorts of individuals participating in parallel longitudinal studies in Norway (1969-1988) and Sri Lanka (1970-1990), covering the age range from 15 to 50 years. In the Norwegian cohort gingival recession had begun early in life. It occurred in greater than or equal to 60% of the 20 year-olds and was confined to the buccal surfaces. At 30, greater than or equal to 70% had recession, which still was found mainly on buccal surfaces. As the group approached 50 years of age, more than 90% had gingival recession; greater than or equal to 25% of the buccal surfaces were involved, greater than or equal to 15% of lingual, and 3 to 4% of the interproximal surfaces. In the Sri Lankan cohort greater than or equal to 30% exhibited gingival recession before the age of 20 years. By 30 years, 90% had recession on buccal, lingual, and interproximal surfaces; and at 40 years, 100% of the Sri Lankans had recession. As they approached 50 years, gingival recession occurred in greater than or equal to 70% of the buccal, greater than or equal to 50% of the lingual, and 40% of the interproximal surfaces. Based on the special features of the two cohorts, the working hypothesis is advanced that there is more than one type of gingival recession and probably several factors determining the initiation and development of these lesions.

                Author and article information

                Open Access Maced J Med Sci
                Open Access Maced J Med Sci
                Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
                Republic of Macedonia (ID Design 2012/DOOEL Skopje )
                15 April 2018
                02 April 2018
                : 6
                : 4
                : 698-708
                [1 ] Department of Oral Pathology and Periodontology, Dental Clinical Center, Faculty of Stomatology, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
                [2 ] Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University “Hasan Prishtina”, Prishtina, Kosovo
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence: Aneta Atanasovska-Stojanovska. Department of Periodontology, Department of Oral Pathology and Periodontology, Dental Clinical Center, Faculty of Stomatology, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. E-mail: anetaatanasovska@ 123456yahoo.com
                Copyright: © 2018 Mirsad Shkreta, Aneta Atanasovska-Stojanovska, Blerta Dollaku, Zlatanka Belazelkoska.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).

                : 02 March 2018
                : 25 March 2018
                : 26 March 2018
                Dental Science - Review

                gingival recession,root coverage,coronally advanced flap (caf),subepithelial connective tissue grafts (sctg),guided tissue regeneration (gtr)


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