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      Renal Effects of Long-Term Ciclosporin A Treatment in a Large Animal Model

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          Abstract

          Background: Most experimental studies of chronic ciclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity have been performed in rodents; however, the pig possesses several advantages. The aim of this study was to investigate renal functional and structural changes during CsA treatment with 20 mg/kg/day for 6 months in a pig model. Methods: Göttingen minipigs were randomized to oral CsA treatment or as controls. At 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 weeks body weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine, and whole blood CsA levels were measured. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to estimate relative glomerular filtration rate (rGFR), renal blood flow (RBF), kidney length and volume. Renal vascular resistance (RVR) was calculated. Kidney tissue biopsies were taken and volume fraction of cortical interstitial tissue estimated by a stereology-based method. Results: CsA induced significant increases in serum creatinine, blood pressure, RVR, and a significant decrease in RBF. Furthermore, renal volume increased significantly. This finding was inversely related to the decrease in RBF and initially followed by an increase in rGFR, which then decreased. No significant histopathological kidney changes were observed. Conclusion: CsA treatment with 20 mg/kg/day for 6 months causes increased serum creatinine, blood pressure, RVR, and renal volume along with a decrease in RBF in accordance with data obtained in humans. The initial temporal changes in renal volume and function during CsA administration have similarities to the functional changes seen in early diabetes.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Chronic cyclosporine nephropathy: the Achilles' heel of immunosuppressive therapy.

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            Progressive histologic injury in kidneys from heart and liver transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine.

            Cyclosporine (CsA) causes both acute and chronic nephrotoxicity. The goal of the present studies was to examine the nature of the chronic renal pathologic lesions of CsA nephrotoxicity and to determine whether these lesions progress with prolonged exposure to the drug. With this purpose, we examined large sections of kidneys obtained at autopsy from 15 heart transplant recipients, 7 liver transplant recipients, and 10 nontransplanted controls. Tissue sections were examined blindly by light microscopy, histomorphometry, and color computer image analysis. With increasing time following transplantation, there was a progressive increase in renal arteriolar hyalinosis and in the percentage of glomeruli demonstrating global sclerosis. In addition, there was a statistically significant relationship between arteriolar hyalinosis and global glomerulosclerosis (r=0.61, P<0.003). The percentage of glomeruli with focal glomerulosclerosis was also increased in transplant recipients followed for more than 80 days. The kidneys of heart and liver recipients who died less than 80 days after transplantation, that is, those patients who received no CsA or low doses of CsA, demonstrated significantly more interstitial fibrosis than the kidneys of control individuals. Furthermore, there was no significant increase in the amount of renal interstitial fibrosis in allograft recipients followed for prolonged periods of time. There were no significant relationships between the severity of renal pathologic changes and serum creatinine or systemic blood pressure levels. In conclusion, non-renal transplant recipients demonstrate renal damage that affects primarily the preglomerular arterioles and results in glomerular obliteration. This renal damage increases in relation to the time of exposure to CsA and in relation to the total dose of CsA that the patient receives. These renal structural changes are not reflected initially in changes in glomerular filtration rate, as determined by serum creatinine.
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              Neuropsychological Findings in Frontal Lobe Dementia

              Neuropsychological investigations were performed on 18 patients with a clinical diagnosis of frontal lobe dementia supported by regional cerebral blood flow measurements. Nature and degree of cognitive impairment were examined with a comprehensive test battery. The results of the neuropsychological assessment could be described as three levels of cognitive impairment. The increasing levels of cognitive impairment were accompanied by corresponding levels of reduced cerebral blood flow in frontotemporal areas. No apparent relationship emerged between impairment level and illness duration, indicating a considerable individual variation in the clinical course of frontal lobe dementia.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2007
                March 2007
                25 January 2007
                : 105
                : 4
                : e91-e97
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, bInstitute of Clinical Medicine, cMR Research Center, and dDepartment of Radiology, Skejby Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, eDepartment of Pathology and fThe Medical Research Laboratories, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
                Article
                99003 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2007;105:e91–e97
                10.1159/000099003
                17259743
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 23, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/99003
                Categories
                Original Paper

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