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      Mycobacterium abscessus Keratitis after LASIK with IntraLase ® Femtosecond Laser

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          Abstract

          A healthy 38-year-old woman developed 2 white spots in her left eye 2 weeks after bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using the IntraLase<sup>®</sup> femtosecond laser. Initial treatment included levofloxacin 0.5% but was unsuccessful. The surgeon irrigated the interface and repositioned the flap due to a worsened lesion. She was referred to us after the keratitis had not improved. The flap was lifted for collection of the specimen and irrigation of the interface. The keratitis was treated with intensive topical clarithromycin 1%, amikacin 1.25% and oral clarithromycin, which improved her clinical condition. She developed a toxic reaction to amikacin 1.25%, which was replaced by moxifloxacin 0.5%. Mycobacterium abscessus was identified. The keratitis resolved over 2 months. Five months after treatment, the patient had a visual acuity of 20/20 with correction. Nontuberculous mycobacteria should be considered as an etiologic agent, even in cases of infectious keratitis after LASIK using the femtosecond laser.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Comparison of the IntraLase femtosecond laser and mechanical keratomes for laser in situ keratomileusis.

          To compare laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) results obtained with the femtosecond laser (IntraLase Corp.) to those obtained using 2 popular mechanical microkeratomes. Private practice, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA. This retrospective analysis compared LASIK outcomes with the femtosecond laser to those with the Carriazo-Barraquer (CB) microkeratome (Moria, Inc.) and the Hansatome microkeratome (Bausch & Lomb, Inc.). The 3 groups were matched for enrollment criteria and were operated on under similar conditions by the same surgeon. There were 106 eyes in the IntraLase group, 126 eyes in the CB group, and 143 eyes in the Hansatome group. One day postoperatively, the uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) results in the 3 groups were similar; at 3 months, the UCVA and the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity results were not significantly different. A manifest spheroequivalent of +/-0.50 diopter (D) was achieved in 91% of eyes in the IntraLase group, 73% of eyes in the CB group, and 74% of eyes in the Hansatome group (P<.01). IntraLase flaps were significantly thinner (P<.01) and varied less in thickness (P<.01) than flaps created with the other devices. The mean flap thickness was 114 microm +/- 14 (SD) with the IntraLase programmed for a 130 microm depth, 153 +/- 26 microm with the CB using a 130 microm plate, and 156 +/- 29 microm with the Hansatome using a 180 microm plate. Loose epithelium was encountered in 9.6% of eyes in the CB group and 7.7% of eyes in the Hansatome group but in no eye in the IntraLase group (P =.001). Surgically induced astigmatism in sphere corrections was significantly less with the IntraLase than with the other devices (P<.01). The IntraLase demonstrated more predictable flap thickness, better astigmatic neutrality, and decreased epithelial injury than 2 popular mechanical microkeratomes.
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            A large localized outbreak of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection on a temperate southern Australian island.

            Mycobacterium ulcerans, the organism which causes Buruli or Bairnsdale ulcer, has never been isolated in culture from an environmental sample. Most foci of infection are in tropical regions. The authors describe the first 29 cases of M. ulcerans infection from a new focus on an island in temperate southern Australia, 1992-5. Cases were mostly elderly, had predominantly distal limb lesions and were clustered in a small region in the eastern half of the main town on the island. The authors suspected that an irrigation system which lay in the midst of the cluster was a source of infection. Limitation of irrigation was associated with a dramatic reduction in the number of new cases. These findings support the hypothesis that M. ulcerans has an aquatic reservoir and that persons may be infected directly or indirectly by mycobacteria disseminated locally by spray irrigation.
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              Mycobacterium chelonae wound infections after plastic surgery employing contaminated gentian violet skin-marking solution.

              From April 1 to October 31, 1985, postoperative surgical-wound infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria developed in eight patients undergoing cosmetic plastic surgery performed by one surgeon. All infections followed either face-lift or augmentation-mammoplasty procedures performed in the surgeon's office; no infections occurred after surgical procedures performed at the hospital or after other surgical procedures performed at the office. An epidemiologic investigation implicated a gentian violet skin-marking solution as the source of the infections (P less than 0.001). Among patients exposed to the gentian violet, infection was significantly more likely to develop in those undergoing a face lift or augmentation mammoplasty than in those undergoing blepharoplasty (P less than 0.001). Additional risk factors for infection included the postoperative use of antibiotics and glucocorticoids. Mycobacterium chelonae, subspecies abscessus, was isolated from the gentian violet stock used by the surgeon and from five of the eight patients. Additional studies showed that the same organism was present in the gentian violet stock at the pharmacy that supplied the agent to the surgeon. After a sterile skin-marking agent was substituted for the contaminated agent, no further cases occurred.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2006
                June 2006
                21 June 2006
                : 220
                : 4
                : 277-280
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, bKong Eye Center, cYong-Dong Severance Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, and dBrain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                Article
                93084 Ophthalmologica 2006;220:277–280
                10.1159/000093084
                16785761
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 20, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Case Report

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