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      Biocompatibility and Mineralization Activity of Three Calcium Silicate-Based Root Canal Sealers Compared to Conventional Resin-Based Sealer in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects and mineralization activity of three calcium silicate-based root canal sealers to those of a conventional resin-based sealer. Experiments were performed using human dental pulp stem cells grown in a monolayer culture. The root canal sealers tested in this study were EndoSequence BC Sealer (Brasseler), BioRoot RCS (Septodont), Endoseal MTA (Maruchi), and AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey). Experimental disks 6 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height were made and stored in a 100% humidity chamber at 37 °C for 72 h to achieve setting. The cytotoxicity of various root canal sealers was evaluated using a methyl-thiazoldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. To evaluate cell migration ability, a scratch wound healing method was used, and images of the scratch area were taken using a phase-contrast microscope. Cell morphology was evaluated by a scanning electron microscope after direct exposure for 72 h to each sealer disk. In the cell viability assay, there were no significant differences between the EndoSequence BC, BioRoot RCS, Endoseal MTA, and control groups in any experimental period ( p > 0.05). In the cell migration assay, there were no significant differences between the EndoSequence BC, Endoseal MTA, and control groups in any experimental period ( p > 0.05). BioRoot RCS exhibited slower cell migration relative to EndoSequence BC and Endoseal MTA for up to 72 h ( p < 0.05). Conversely, it showed a similar wound healing percentage at 96 h ( p > 0.05). In an evaluation of cell morphology, cells in direct contact with EndoSequence BC, BioRoot RCS, and Endoseal MTA disks showed superior spreading compared to those in contact with the AH Plus disk. In an Alizarin red staining assay, EndoSequence BC, BioRoot RCS, and Endoseal MTA showed a significant increase in mineralized nodule formation compared to the AH Plus group ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, all calcium silicate-based root canal sealers tested in this study showed good biological properties and mineralization activity compared to conventional resin-based sealer.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Physical properties of 5 root canal sealers.

          The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH change, viscosity and other physical properties of 2 novel root canal sealers (MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC) in comparison with 2 epoxy resin-based sealers (AH Plus and ThermaSeal), a silicone-based sealer (GuttaFlow), and a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer (Pulp Canal Sealer).
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            Evaluation of radiopacity, pH, release of calcium ions, and flow of a bioceramic root canal sealer.

            The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of a bioceramic root canal sealer, Endosequence BC Sealer. Radiopacity, pH, release of calcium ions (Ca(2+)), and flow were analyzed, and the results were compared with AH Plus cement.
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              Setting properties and cytotoxicity evaluation of a premixed bioceramic root canal sealer.

              This study investigated the setting time and micohardness of a premixed calcium phosphate silicate-based sealer (EndoSequence BC Sealer; Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA) in the presence of different moisture contents (0-9 wt%). The moisture content that produced the most optimal setting properties was used to prepare set EndoSequence BC Sealer for cytotoxicity comparison with an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE). Standardized disks were created with BC Sealer, AH Plus, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT (positive control) (SybronEndo, Orange CA), and Teflon (Small Parts Inc., Miami Lakes, FL; negative control). Disks were placed in Transwell Inserts, providing indirect contact with MC3T3-E1 cells. Succinate dehydrogenase activity of the cells was evaluated over a 6-week period using MTT ((3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Cytotoxicity profiles of BC Sealer and AH Plus were fitted with polynomial regression models. The time for 50% of the cells to survive (T(0.5)) was analyzed using the Wald statistic with a two-tailed significance level of 0.05. BC Sealer required at least 168 hours to reach the final setting using the Gilmore needle method, and its microhardeness significantly declined when water was included in the sealer (P = .004). All set sealers exhibited severe cytotoxicity at 24 hours. The cytotoxicity of AH Plus gradually decreased and became noncytotoxic, whereas BC Sealer remained moderately cytotoxic over the 6-week period. A significant difference (P < .001) was detected between T(0.5) of BC Sealer (5.10 weeks; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.69-5.42, standard error [SE] = 0.09) and T(0.5) of AH Plus (0.86 weeks; 95% CI, 0.68-1.05; SE = 0.18). Further studies are required to evaluate the correlation between the length of setting time of BC Sealer and its degree of cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                05 August 2019
                August 2019
                : 12
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Conservative Dentistry, Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea
                [2 ]College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Conservative Dentistry, Seoul St. Mary’s Dental Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jeui99@ 123456catholic.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-2-2258-1787
                Article
                materials-12-02482
                10.3390/ma12152482
                6696455
                31387241
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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