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      Polymorphism of the Interleukin-4, Interleukin-13, and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 Genes in Indonesian Children with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome

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          Background/Aims: Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in children is frequently associated with allergy and immunoglobulin E (IgE) production. T-helper subtype 2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, have been implicated in the regulation of IgE production. We investigated the associations of gene polymorphisms of IL-4, IL-13, and signal transducer and activator 6 (STAT6) in Indonesian children with MCNS (n = 84) and controls with neither allergic nor renal disease (n = 61). Methods: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the IL-4 promoter gene polymorphism (–590C/T) and IL-13 gene polymorphism (4257G/A), and direct sequencing was used for the STAT6 3S untranslated region (2964G/A) polymorphism. Results: There was a significant difference between the MCNS group and the controls in the genotypic distribution of IL-4 and IL-13 gene polymorphism. In the case of the IL-4 promoter gene, the frequency of the CC homozygote was significantly lower in the MCNS group than in the controls, while, in the case of IL-13, the frequency of the GG homozygote was significantly lower in the MCNS group. However, there was no difference between the MCNS group and the controls in the STAT6 gene polymorphism. Conclusion: The genetic variations in the IL-4 and IL-13 genes may be associated with predisposition to MCNS.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Essential role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling.

          Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic lymphokine which plays an important role in the immune system. IL-4 activates two distinct signalling pathways through tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat6, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, and of a 170K protein called 4PS. To investigate the functional role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling, we generated mice deficient in Stat6 by gene targeting. We report here that in the mutant mice, expression of CD23 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in resting B cells was not enhanced in response to IL-4. IL-4 induced B-cell proliferation costimulated by anti-IgM antibody was abolished. The T-cell proliferative response was also notably reduced. Furthermore, production of Th2 cytokines from T cells as well as IgE and IgG1 responses after nematode infection were profoundly reduced. These findings agreed with those obtained in IL-4 deficient mice or using antibodies to IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor. We conclude that Stat6 plays a central role in exerting IL-4 mediated biological responses.
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            Transcriptional responses to polypeptide ligands: the JAK-STAT pathway.

            Cytokines and growth factors regulate multiple aspects of cell growth through their interactions with specific receptors. These receptors initiate signals directed at both the cytoplasmic and the nuclear compartments. Many of the nuclear signals culminate in the induction of new genes. Characterization of the ability of IFN-alpha to rapidly induce new genes has led to the identification of a new signaling paradigm, the JAK-STAT (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) pathway. In the IFN-alpha pathway, two receptor associated tyrosine kinases from the JAK family, Jak1 and Tyk2, mediate the activation of two latent cytoplasmic transcription factors, Stat1 and Stat2. More recent studies have not only determined that this pathway is used extensively, but have led to the identification of additional components (e.g., Jak2, Jak3, Stat3, Stat4, Stat5, and Stat6). This review will examine how these components mediate the transduction of signal directly from receptor to nucleus.
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              Pathogenesis of lipoid nephrosis: a disorder of T-cell function.

               J Shalhoub (1974)
              Clinical observations suggest that lipoid nephrosis is produced by a systemic abnormality of T-cell function resulting in the secretion of a circulating chemical mediator toxic to an immunologically innocent glomerular basement membrane. The lack of evidence of a humoral antibody response, remission induced by measles which modifies cell-mediated immunity, the therapeutic benefits of steroids and cyclophosphamide which also abate cell-mediated responses, and the occurrence of this syndrome in Hodgkin's disease support this hypothesis. The susceptibility of untreated patients to pneumococcal infections may be of primary or secondary pathogenetic importance. Taken together, the data suggest that this syndrome is a clinical expression of a self-limited primary immune-deficiency disease.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                February 2005
                22 March 2005
                : 25
                : 1
                : 30-35
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, bDepartment of Clinical Genetics, and cInternational Center for Medical Research and Treatment, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan; dDepartment of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
                83729 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:30–35
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 39, Pages: 6
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                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation


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