22 March 2005
Background/Aims: Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in children is frequently associated with allergy and immunoglobulin E (IgE) production. T-helper subtype 2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, have been implicated in the regulation of IgE production. We investigated the associations of gene polymorphisms of IL-4, IL-13, and signal transducer and activator 6 (STAT6) in Indonesian children with MCNS (n = 84) and controls with neither allergic nor renal disease (n = 61). Methods: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the IL-4 promoter gene polymorphism (–590C/T) and IL-13 gene polymorphism (4257G/A), and direct sequencing was used for the STAT6 3S untranslated region (2964G/A) polymorphism. Results: There was a significant difference between the MCNS group and the controls in the genotypic distribution of IL-4 and IL-13 gene polymorphism. In the case of the IL-4 promoter gene, the frequency of the CC homozygote was significantly lower in the MCNS group than in the controls, while, in the case of IL-13, the frequency of the GG homozygote was significantly lower in the MCNS group. However, there was no difference between the MCNS group and the controls in the STAT6 gene polymorphism. Conclusion: The genetic variations in the IL-4 and IL-13 genes may be associated with predisposition to MCNS.