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      Polymorphism of the Interleukin-4, Interleukin-13, and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 Genes in Indonesian Children with Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in children is frequently associated with allergy and immunoglobulin E (IgE) production. T-helper subtype 2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, have been implicated in the regulation of IgE production. We investigated the associations of gene polymorphisms of IL-4, IL-13, and signal transducer and activator 6 (STAT6) in Indonesian children with MCNS (n = 84) and controls with neither allergic nor renal disease (n = 61). Methods: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the IL-4 promoter gene polymorphism (–590C/T) and IL-13 gene polymorphism (4257G/A), and direct sequencing was used for the STAT6 3S untranslated region (2964G/A) polymorphism. Results: There was a significant difference between the MCNS group and the controls in the genotypic distribution of IL-4 and IL-13 gene polymorphism. In the case of the IL-4 promoter gene, the frequency of the CC homozygote was significantly lower in the MCNS group than in the controls, while, in the case of IL-13, the frequency of the GG homozygote was significantly lower in the MCNS group. However, there was no difference between the MCNS group and the controls in the STAT6 gene polymorphism. Conclusion: The genetic variations in the IL-4 and IL-13 genes may be associated with predisposition to MCNS.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Essential role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling.

          Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic lymphokine which plays an important role in the immune system. IL-4 activates two distinct signalling pathways through tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat6, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, and of a 170K protein called 4PS. To investigate the functional role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling, we generated mice deficient in Stat6 by gene targeting. We report here that in the mutant mice, expression of CD23 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in resting B cells was not enhanced in response to IL-4. IL-4 induced B-cell proliferation costimulated by anti-IgM antibody was abolished. The T-cell proliferative response was also notably reduced. Furthermore, production of Th2 cytokines from T cells as well as IgE and IgG1 responses after nematode infection were profoundly reduced. These findings agreed with those obtained in IL-4 deficient mice or using antibodies to IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor. We conclude that Stat6 plays a central role in exerting IL-4 mediated biological responses.
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            Transcriptional responses to polypeptide ligands: the JAK-STAT pathway.

            Cytokines and growth factors regulate multiple aspects of cell growth through their interactions with specific receptors. These receptors initiate signals directed at both the cytoplasmic and the nuclear compartments. Many of the nuclear signals culminate in the induction of new genes. Characterization of the ability of IFN-alpha to rapidly induce new genes has led to the identification of a new signaling paradigm, the JAK-STAT (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) pathway. In the IFN-alpha pathway, two receptor associated tyrosine kinases from the JAK family, Jak1 and Tyk2, mediate the activation of two latent cytoplasmic transcription factors, Stat1 and Stat2. More recent studies have not only determined that this pathway is used extensively, but have led to the identification of additional components (e.g., Jak2, Jak3, Stat3, Stat4, Stat5, and Stat6). This review will examine how these components mediate the transduction of signal directly from receptor to nucleus.
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              Pathogenesis of lipoid nephrosis: a disorder of T-cell function.

               J Shalhoub (1974)
              Clinical observations suggest that lipoid nephrosis is produced by a systemic abnormality of T-cell function resulting in the secretion of a circulating chemical mediator toxic to an immunologically innocent glomerular basement membrane. The lack of evidence of a humoral antibody response, remission induced by measles which modifies cell-mediated immunity, the therapeutic benefits of steroids and cyclophosphamide which also abate cell-mediated responses, and the occurrence of this syndrome in Hodgkin's disease support this hypothesis. The susceptibility of untreated patients to pneumococcal infections may be of primary or secondary pathogenetic importance. Taken together, the data suggest that this syndrome is a clinical expression of a self-limited primary immune-deficiency disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2005
                February 2005
                22 March 2005
                : 25
                : 1
                : 30-35
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, bDepartment of Clinical Genetics, and cInternational Center for Medical Research and Treatment, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan; dDepartment of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
                Article
                83729 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:30–35
                10.1159/000083729
                15687724
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 39, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/83729
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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