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      Formation of N‐Nitrosamines in Drinking Water Sources: Case Studies from Western Australia

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          Abstract

          This study investigated the formation of eight N‐nitrosamines after laboratory chlorination and chloramination of Western Australian source waters (from protected catchments), which experience periodic cyanobacterial blooms. All measured N‐nitrosamines, except N‐nitrosodipropylamine, were detected at least once, and total N‐nitrosamine formation was higher after chloramination than after chlorination. While previous studies have shown that some cyanobacteria can be related to the formation of N‐nitrosamines, formation of N‐nitrosamines in the waters tested did not correlate with total cyanobacteria count. Estimates of toxicity, using published 50% lifetime excess cancer risk values, indicated that N‐nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was the highest contributor to the total measured N‐nitrosamine toxicity, suggesting that other measured N‐nitrosamines will only influence toxicity when they are present at significantly higher concentrations than NDMA. When assessing the overall health impact of disinfection by‐products, it is important to also consider the formation of disinfection by‐products other than N‐nitrosamines, which may be present at higher concentrations and thus may present higher toxicity.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Journal
          10.1002/(ISSN)1551-8833
          Journal ‐ American Water Works Association
          Journal ‐ American Water Works Association
          0003-150X
          1551-8833
          01 June 2017
          Affiliations
          Perth; AU
          Perth; AU Curtin University
          Article
          10.5942/jawwa.2017.109.0036
          © 2017 American Water Works Association
          Funding
          Funded by: Australian Research Council
          Award ID: LP0882550
          Award ID: LP110100548
          Funded by: Water Corporation of Western Australia
          Funded by: Water Research Australia
          Funded by: GHD Pty Ltd
          Funded by: Curtin University

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