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      Neuroprotection in glaucoma: recent advances and clinical translation : Neuroprotection in glaucoma

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          Adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma caused by mutations in optineurin.

          Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) affects 33 million individuals worldwide and is a leading cause of blindness. In a study of 54 families with autosomal dominantly inherited adult-onset POAG, we identified the causative gene on chromosome 10p14 and designated it OPTN (for "optineurin"). Sequence alterations in OPTN were found in 16.7% of families with hereditary POAG, including individuals with normal intraocular pressure. The OPTN gene codes for a conserved 66-kilodalton protein of unknown function that has been implicated in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha signaling pathway and that interacts with diverse proteins including Huntingtin, Ras-associated protein RAB8, and transcription factor IIIA. Optineurin is expressed in trabecular meshwork, nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, retina, and brain, and we speculate that it plays a neuroprotective role.
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            Retinal ischemia: mechanisms of damage and potential therapeutic strategies.

            Retinal ischemia is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness. At the cellular level, ischemic retinal injury consists of a self-reinforcing destructive cascade involving neuronal depolarisation, calcium influx and oxidative stress initiated by energy failure and increased glutamatergic stimulation. There is a cell-specific sensitivity to ischemic injury which may reflect variability in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors on a given cell. A number of animal models and analytical techniques have been used to study retinal ischemia, and an increasing number of treatments have been shown to interrupt the "ischemic cascade" and attenuate the detrimental effects of retinal ischemia. Thus far, however, success in the laboratory has not been translated to the clinic. Difficulties with the route of administration, dosage, and adverse effects may render certain experimental treatments clinically unusable. Furthermore, neuroprotection-based treatment strategies for stroke have so far been disappointing. However, compared to the brain, the retina exhibits a remarkable natural resistance to ischemic injury, which may reflect its peculiar metabolism and unique environment. Given the increasing understanding of the events involved in ischemic neuronal injury it is hoped that clinically effective treatments for retinal ischemia will soon be available.
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              Identification of a gene that causes primary open angle glaucoma.

              Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness and is characterized by progressive degeneration of the optic nerve and is usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Analyses of sequence tagged site (STS) content and haplotype sharing between families affected with chromosome 1q-linked open angle glaucoma (GLC1A) were used to prioritize candidate genes for mutation screening. A gene encoding a trabecular meshwork protein (TIGR) mapped to the narrowest disease interval by STS content and radiation hybrid mapping. Thirteen glaucoma patients were found to have one of three mutations in this gene (3.9 percent of the population studied). One of these mutations was also found in a control individual (0.2 percent). Identification of these mutations will aid in early diagnosis, which is essential for optimal application of existing therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
                Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
                Wiley
                14426404
                January 2019
                January 2019
                July 01 2018
                : 47
                : 1
                : 88-105
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Ophthalmic Research Laboratory, South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology; University of Adelaide; Adelaide South Australia Australia
                Article
                10.1111/ceo.13336
                © 2018

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