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Atomically precise semiconductor—graphene and hBN interfaces by Ge intercalation

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      The full exploration of the potential, which graphene offers to nanoelectronics requires its integration into semiconductor technology. So far the real-world applications are limited by the ability to concomitantly achieve large single-crystalline domains on dielectrics and semiconductors and to tailor the interfaces between them. Here we show a new direct bottom-up method for the fabrication of high-quality atomically precise interfaces between 2D materials, like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride ( hBN), and classical semiconductor via Ge intercalation. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and complementary DFT modelling we observed for the first time that epitaxially grown graphene with the Ge monolayer underneath demonstrates Dirac Fermions unaffected by the substrate as well as an unperturbed electronic band structure of hBN. This approach provides the intrinsic relativistic 2D electron gas towards integration in semiconductor technology. Hence, these new interfaces are a promising path for the integration of graphene and hBN into state-of-the-art semiconductor technology.

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        The rise of graphene.

        Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
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          Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple.


            Author and article information

            [1 ]Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna , Strudlhofgasse 4, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
            [2 ]II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln , Zülpicher Straβe 77, D-50937 Cologne, Germany
            [3 ]Department of Materials Science, Moscow State University , Leninskiye Gory 1/3, 119992, Moscow, Russia
            [4 ]IFW Dresden , P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden, Germany
            [5 ]St. Petersburg State University , 7/9 Universitetskaya nab, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia
            [6 ]Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila , Via Vetoio 10, I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy
            [7 ]CNR-SPIN , Via Vetoio 10, I-67100 L’Aquila, Italy
            [8 ]Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste , Strada Statale 14 km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste, Italy
            [9 ]Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology , Helmholtzstraße 10, D-01062 Dresden, Germany
            [10 ]Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) , Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
            [11 ]IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science , 48011 Bilbao, Spain
            [12 ]Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and CFM-MPC UPV/EHU , 20080 San Sebastian, Spain
            [13 ]JSC “Giredmet” SRC RF , Tolmachevky St. 5-1 B, 119017 Moscow, Russia
            [14 ]Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University , Leninskiye Gory 1/3, 119992, Moscow, Russia
            Author notes
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group
            07 December 2015
            : 5
            26639608 4671056 srep17700 10.1038/srep17700
            Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

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