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      Human Immunodeficiency Virus Impairs Reverse Cholesterol Transport from Macrophages

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          Abstract

          Several steps of HIV-1 replication critically depend on cholesterol. HIV infection is associated with profound changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Whereas numerous studies have investigated the role of anti-HIV drugs in lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia, the effects of HIV infection on cellular cholesterol metabolism remain uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that HIV-1 impairs ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-dependent cholesterol efflux from human macrophages, a condition previously shown to be highly atherogenic. In HIV-1–infected cells, this effect was mediated by Nef. Transfection of murine macrophages with Nef impaired cholesterol efflux from these cells. At least two mechanisms were found to be responsible for this phenomenon: first, HIV infection and transfection with Nef induced post-transcriptional down-regulation of ABCA1; and second, Nef caused redistribution of ABCA1 to the plasma membrane and inhibited internalization of apolipoprotein A-I. Binding of Nef to ABCA1 was required for down-regulation and redistribution of ABCA1. HIV-infected and Nef-transfected macrophages accumulated substantial amounts of lipids, thus resembling foam cells. The contribution of HIV-infected macrophages to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis was supported by the presence of HIV-positive foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques of HIV-infected patients. Stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophages significantly reduced infectivity of the virions produced by these cells, and this effect correlated with a decreased amount of virion-associated cholesterol, suggesting that impairment of cholesterol efflux is essential to ensure proper cholesterol content in nascent HIV particles. These results reveal a previously unrecognized dysregulation of intracellular lipid metabolism in HIV-infected macrophages and identify Nef and ABCA1 as the key players responsible for this effect. Our findings have implications for pathogenesis of both HIV disease and atherosclerosis, because they reveal the role of cholesterol efflux impairment in HIV infectivity and suggest a possible mechanism by which HIV infection of macrophages may contribute to increased risk of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients.

          Abstract

          HIV1-Nef impairs ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux from infected macrophages, promoting the transformation of virally infected macrophages into foam cells (a condition that may put HIV patients at risk for atherosclerosis).

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          Most cited references 77

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          Atherosclerosis.

           Eriks Lusis (2000)
          Atherosclerosis, a disease of the large arteries, is the primary cause of heart disease and stroke. In westernized societies, it is the underlying cause of about 50% of all deaths. Epidemiological studies have revealed several important environmental and genetic risk factors associated with atherosclerosis. Progress in defining the cellular and molecular interactions involved, however, has been hindered by the disease's aetiological complexity. Over the past decade, the availability of new investigative tools, including genetically modified mouse models of disease, has resulted in a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanisms that connect altered cholesterol metabolism and other risk factors to the development of atherosclerotic plaque. It is now clear that atherosclerosis is not simply an inevitable degenerative consequence of ageing, but rather a chronic inflammatory condition that can be converted into an acute clinical event by plaque rupture and thrombosis.
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            Effects of infection and inflammation on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism: mechanisms and consequences to the host.

            Infection and inflammation induce the acute-phase response (APR), leading to multiple alterations in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Plasma triglyceride levels increase from increased VLDL secretion as a result of adipose tissue lipolysis, increased de novo hepatic fatty acid synthesis, and suppression of fatty acid oxidation. With more severe infection, VLDL clearance decreases secondary to decreased lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein E in VLDL. In rodents, hypercholesterolemia occurs attributable to increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and decreased LDL clearance, conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, and secretion of cholesterol into the bile. Marked alterations in proteins important in HDL metabolism lead to decreased reverse cholesterol transport and increased cholesterol delivery to immune cells. Oxidation of LDL and VLDL increases, whereas HDL becomes a proinflammatory molecule. Lipoproteins become enriched in ceramide, glucosylceramide, and sphingomyelin, enhancing uptake by macrophages. Thus, many of the changes in lipoproteins are proatherogenic. The molecular mechanisms underlying the decrease in many of the proteins during the APR involve coordinated decreases in several nuclear hormone receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, liver X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and retinoid X receptor. APR-induced alterations initially protect the host from the harmful effects of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. However, if prolonged, these changes in the structure and function of lipoproteins will contribute to atherogenesis.
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              Endocytosis of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules is induced by the HIV-1 Nef protein.

              Like other pathogenic viruses, HIV-1 down-modulates surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules in infected cells, thus impairing lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We have observed that this phenomenon depends on the expression of Nef. nef is an early gene of primate lentiviruses, which is necessary for maintaining high virus loads and inducing AIDS. Nef is not necessary for viral replication in vitro and stimulates the endocytosis of CD4. We show that the expression of MHC-I at the surface of lymphoid, monocytic and epithelial cells was reduced in the presence of Nef protein from various HIV-1 strains. Whereas MHC-I protein synthesis and transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and cis Golgi apparatus occurred normally in Nef(+) cells, surface MHC-I molecules were rapidly internalized, accumulated in endosomal vesicles and were degraded. The stimulation of MHC-I endocytosis by Nef represents a previously undocumented viral mechanism for evading the immune response.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Biol
                pbio
                PLoS Biology
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1544-9173
                1545-7885
                November 2006
                31 October 2006
                : 4
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ] The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
                [2 ] Baker Heart Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
                [3 ] University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
                St. Vincent's Hospital, Australia
                Author notes
                * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mtmmib@ 123456gwumc.edu
                Article
                06-PLBI-RA-0202R4 plbi-04-11-17
                10.1371/journal.pbio.0040365
                1629034
                17076584
                Copyright: © 2006 Mujawar et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 1
                Categories
                Research Article
                Cell Biology
                Virology
                Diabetes/Endocrinology/Metabolism
                HIV/AIDS
                Biochemistry
                Viruses
                Homo (Human)
                Custom metadata
                Mujawar Z, Rose H, Morrow MP, Pushkarsky T, Dubrovsky L, et al. (2006) Human immunodeficiency virus impairs reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages. PLoS Biol 4(11): e365. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040365

                Life sciences

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