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      Normalization of Negative T Waves in the Chronic Stage of Q Wave Anterior Myocardial Infarction as a Predictor of Myocardial Viability

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          Abstract

          We investigated whether spontaneous normalization of negative T waves (TWN) on infarct-related ECG leads (IRLs) in the chronic phase of Q wave anterior myocardial infarction (MI) could be a predictor of residual viability in infarct areas. We prospectively studied 35 patients (age 60 ± 8.6 years) in the chronic phase of Q wave anterior MI. Spontaneous TWN (group A, n = 23) were defined as negative T waves that became upright (≧0.15 mV) in ≧2 IRLs. The presence of negative T waves (group B, n = 12) was defined as symmetric or biphasic negative T wave of ≧0.15 mV. All patients underwent same-day rest <sup>201</sup>Tl-stress <sup>99m</sup>Tc sestamibi dual-isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT and 24-hour <sup>201</sup>Tl reinjection imaging for ischemia and viability analysis. On scintigraphic examination, ischemic or viable myocardial segments were found in 18 patients (78%) with TWN and 4 patients (33%) of group B (p = 0.013). The use of TWN as a parameter had a marked influence on the sensitivity (82%), specificity (62%), positive (78%) and negative (67%) predictive values and accuracy (74%) of the diagnosis of viable myocardium. If we add the criterion of positive T waves in aVR with negative T waves to our criteria, we found that sensitivity (90%), positive (80%) and negative (80%) predictive values and accuracy (80%) increased. The results of our study suggest that analysis of TWN on IRLs is an accurate marker of residual viability and/or persistent peri-infarct ischemia in patients in the chronic stage of Q wave anterior MI, and therefore optimizes the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies after MI.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Pathologic implications of restored positive T waves and persistent negative T waves after Q wave myocardial infarction.

          We sought to study the pathologic implications of restored positive T waves and persistent negative T waves in the chronic stage of Q wave myocardial infarction. Some inverted T waves (coronary T waves) become positive after acute myocardial infarction; others retain their negative T wave component for a long time. The pathologic implications of the difference between restored positive T waves and persistent negative T waves in leads with Q waves has not, until now, been given much careful study. Of 17 patients with anterior or anteroseptal myocardial infarction confirmed by autopsy, 8 (group P) had positive and 9 (group N) had negative T waves in precordial leads with Q waves > or = 1 year after the onset of myocardial infarction. The appearance and extent of the infarct area and the degree of coronary artery stenosis were evaluated in both groups. At autopsy, seven of eight patients in group P had nontransmural fibrotic changes in the anteroseptal or anterior wall. However, seven of nine patients in group N had a transmural myocardial infarction consisting of only a thin fibrotic layer in the anteroseptal or anterior wall. The left anterior descending coronary artery showed 75% stenosis in 1 patient in each group but > 90% stenosis in the remaining 15 patients. Persistent negative T waves in leads with Q waves in the chronic stage of myocardial infarction indicate the presence of a transmural infarction with a thin fibrotic layer, whereas positive T waves indicate a nontransmural infarct containing viable myocardium within the layer.
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            Significance of exercise-induced ST-segment elevation and T-wave pseudonormalization for improvement of function in healed Q-wave myocardial infarction.

            Exercise-induced ST-segment elevation and pseudonormalization of negative T waves (ST-T segment changes) in infarct leads indicate myocardial viability after Q-wave myocardial infarcts in some patients and may therefore identify patients who will benefit from revascularization. Global left ventricular ejection fraction and wall motion abnormalities of the left ventricle were analyzed in 34 patients with healed myocardial infarction (11 patients with ST-segment elevation, 3 patients with pseudonormalization of the negative T wave (group 1), and in 20 patients without ST-T segment changes during an exercise electrocardiogram (group 2)) before and 4 months after successful revascularization. Wall motion abnormality in the central infarct region at baseline was similar in both groups (-3.1 +/- 0.6 SD vs 3.0 +/- 0.8 SD; NS). At repeat angiography, wall motion abnormality improved significantly from -3.1 +/- 0.6 SD to -2.1 +/- 0.6 SD (p <0.01) in group 1 and was unchanged in group 2 (-3.0 +/- 0.8 SD vs -2.9 +/- 0.7 SD; NS). Similarly, ejection fraction at control angiography had increased from 54 +/- 14% to 66 +/- 12% (p <0.01) in group 1, but decreased from 56 +/- 9% to 55 +/- 9% in group 2 (NS). Exercise-induced ST-T segment changes yielded a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 89% to predict significant improvement of the left ventricular ejection fraction. Exercise-induced changes of the ST-T segment identify patients with a high probability of improvement of myocardial function after revascularization in patients with healed myocardial infarcts.
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              Persistent negative T waves in the infarct-related leads as an independent predictor of poor long-term prognosis after acute myocardial infarction.

              This study sought to determine the long-term prognostic significance of persistent or transient negative T waves in infarct-related leads. After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), QRS and T wave alterations may resolve. No clinical study has investigated the prognostic importance of persistent versus transient negative T waves. We studied 147 consecutive patients with first AMI and >/=2 negative T waves in the infarct-related leads on the electrocardiogram. One hundred twenty patients developed Q waves. Patients were followed clinically for 60 +/- 21 months. T-wave normalization was observed early (before hospital discharge) in 34 patients and late (at 4 +/- 1 months) in 65. Thirty patients had Q-wave regression. Adverse outcome occurred in 57 patients. There were 23 hard events (cardiac death in 12 patients and nonfatal AMI in 11). Patients with early or late T-wave normalization had similar event-free survival curves that diverged rapidly from that of patients with persistent negative T waves, who had a worse outcome (p <0.0001). Patients with or without Q-wave regression had similar survival curves. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, higher end-systolic volume (hazard ratio [HR] 1.01, p = 0.007), the presence of multivessel disease (HR 3.33, p = 0.009), and persistent negative T waves (HR 2.92, p = 0.024) predicted hard events. Persistent negative T waves 4 months after first AMI were independently associated with a worse outcome, whereas Q-wave regression has no long-term prognostic importance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                February 2005
                07 February 2005
                : 103
                : 2
                : 73-78
                Affiliations
                Departments of aCardiology and bNuclear Medicine, Medical School, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
                Article
                82051 Cardiology 2005;103:73–78
                10.1159/000082051
                15539785
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 16, Pages: 6
                Categories
                General Cardiology

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