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      Long Noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-Mediated Competing Endogenous RNA Networks Provide Novel Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Colorectal Cancer

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          Abstract

          Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and has a high metastasis and reoccurrence rate. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in CRC growth and metastasis. Recent studies revealed that lncRNAs participate in CRC progression by coordinating with microRNAs (miRNAs) and protein-coding mRNAs. LncRNAs function as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) by competitively occupying the shared binding sequences of miRNAs, thus sequestering the miRNAs and changing the expression of their downstream target genes. Such ceRNA networks formed by lncRNA/miRNA/mRNA interactions have been found in a broad spectrum of biological processes in CRC, including liver metastasis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), inflammation formation, and chemo-/radioresistance. In this review, we summarize typical paradigms of lncRNA-associated ceRNA networks, which are involved in the underlying molecular mechanisms of CRC initiation and progression. We comprehensively discuss the competitive crosstalk among RNA transcripts and the novel targets for CRC prognosis and therapy.

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          Most cited references133

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          Long non-coding RNA UCA1 increases chemoresistance of bladder cancer cells by regulating Wnt signaling.

          Chemotherapy is a reasonable alternative to cystectomy in patients with invasive and advanced bladder cancer. However, bladder cancer cells often develop drug resistance to these therapies, and ~ 50% of patients with advanced bladder cancer do not respond to chemotherapy. Recent studies have shown that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is involved in the development of chemoresistance. Here we investigated the role of the urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) lncRNA in cisplatin resistance during chemotherapy for bladder cancer. We showed that cisplatin-based chemotherapy results in up-regulation of UCA1 expression in patients with bladder cancer. Similarly, UCA1 levels are increased in cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cells. Over-expression of UCA1 significantly increases the cell viability during cisplatin treatment, whereas UCA1 knockdown reduces the cell viability during cisplatin treatment. UCA1 inhibition also partially overcomes drug resistance in cisplatin-resistant T24 cells. Furthermore, we showed that UCA1 positively regulates expression of wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 6 (Wnt6) in human bladder cancer cell lines. UCA1 and Wnt6 expression is also positively correlated in vivo. Up-regulation of UCA1 activates Wnt signaling in a Wnt6-dependent manner. We finally demonstrate that UCA1 increases the cisplatin resistance of bladder cancer cells by enhancing the expression of Wnt6, and thus represents a potential target to overcome chemoresistance in bladder cancer. © 2014 FEBS.
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            Desperately seeking microRNA targets.

            MicroRNAs (miRNAs) suppress gene expression by inhibiting translation, promoting mRNA decay or both. Each miRNA may regulate hundreds of genes to control the cell's response to developmental and other environmental cues. The best way to understand the function of a miRNA is to identify the genes that it regulates. Target gene identification is challenging because miRNAs bind to their target mRNAs by partial complementarity over a short sequence, suppression of an individual target gene is often small, and the rules of targeting are not completely understood. Here we review computational and experimental approaches to the identification of miRNA-regulated genes. The examination of changes in gene expression that occur when miRNA expression is altered and biochemical isolation of miRNA-associated transcripts complement target prediction algorithms. Bioinformatic analysis of over-represented pathways and nodes in protein-DNA interactomes formed from experimental candidate miRNA gene target lists can focus attention on biologically significant target genes.
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              Cancer risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study.

              The objective of the current study was to determine the incidence of cancer among persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to compare these incidence rates with those of the non-IBD population using population-based data from the administrative claims data of Manitoba's universal provincial insurance plan (Manitoba Health). IBD patients were matched 1:10 to randomly selected members of the population without IBD based on year, age, gender, and postal area of residence. The incidence of cancer was determined by linking records from the IBD and non-IBD cohorts with the comprehensive Cancer Care Manitoba registry. Incidence rates and rate ratios (IRR) were calculated based on person-years of follow-up (Crohn's disease = 21,340 person-years and ulcerative colitis [UC] = 19,665 person-years) for 1984-1997. There was an increased IRR of colon carcinoma for both Crohn disease patients (2.64; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.69-4.12) and UC patients (2.75; 95% CI, 1.91-3.97). There was an increased IRR of rectal carcinoma only among patients with UC (1.90; 95% CI, 1.05-3.43) and an increased IRR of carcinoma of the small intestine only in Crohn disease patients (17.4; 95% CI, 4.16-72.9). An increased IRR of extraintestinal tumors was observed only for the liver and biliary tract in both Crohn disease patients (5.22; 95% CI, 0.96-28.5) and UC patients (3.96; 95% CI, 1.05-14.9). There was an increased IRR of lymphoma for males with Crohn disease only (3.63; 95% CI, 1.53-8.62), and this finding did not appear to be related to use of immunomodulatory therapy. Compared with controls, Crohn's disease was associated with an increased risk of cancer overall, but UC was not. There appear to be similar increased risks for developing colon carcinoma and hepatobiliary carcinoma among patients with Crohn disease and UC. There is an increased risk of developing rectal carcinoma in UC patients, an increased risk of developing carcinoma of the small bowel in Crohn disease patients, and an increased risk of developing lymphoma among males with Crohn disease. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                16 November 2019
                November 2019
                : 20
                : 22
                : 5758
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX,77204, USA; kcho7@ 123456central.uh.edu (K.B.C.); yanli93776@ 123456gmail.com (Y.L.); gtao@ 123456central.uh.edu (G.T.); zuoxu.xie@ 123456gmail.com (Z.X.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: lwang53@ 123456uh.edu (L.W.); bguo3@ 123456uh.edu (B.G.); Tel.: +832-842-8301 (B.G.); Fax: 832-842-8305 (B.G.)
                Article
                ijms-20-05758
                10.3390/ijms20225758
                6888455
                31744051
                b017c23a-c5bb-43cd-9298-3d43b67d8f69
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 31 October 2019
                : 14 November 2019
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology
                colorectal cancer,lncrna,mirna,cerna
                Molecular biology
                colorectal cancer, lncrna, mirna, cerna

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