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      The COVID-19 global challenge and its implications for the environment – what we are learning

        1 ,   , 2

      UCL Open Environment

      UCL Press

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          Most cited references 9

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          Combined high-resolution genotyping and geospatial analysis reveals modes of endemic urban typhoid fever transmission

          Typhoid is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, human-restricted bacteria that are transmitted faeco-orally. Salmonella Typhi and S. Paratyphi A are clonal, and their limited genetic diversity has precluded the identification of long-term transmission networks in areas with a high disease burden. To improve our understanding of typhoid transmission we have taken a novel approach, performing a longitudinal spatial case–control study for typhoid in Nepal, combining single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and case localization via global positioning. We show extensive clustering of typhoid occurring independent of population size and density. For the first time, we demonstrate an extensive range of genotypes existing within typhoid clusters, and even within individual households, including some resulting from clonal expansion. Furthermore, although the data provide evidence for direct human-to-human transmission, we demonstrate an overwhelming contribution of indirect transmission, potentially via contaminated water. Consistent with this, we detected S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A in water supplies and found that typhoid was spatially associated with public water sources and low elevation. These findings have implications for typhoid-control strategies, and our innovative approach may be applied to other diseases caused by other monophyletic or emerging pathogens.
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            Temperature Dependence of the Extrinsic Incubation Period of Orbiviruses in Culicoides Biting Midges

            Background The rate at which viruses replicate and disseminate in competent arthropod vectors is limited by the temperature of their environment, and this can be an important determinant of geographical and seasonal limits to their transmission by arthropods in temperate regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present a novel statistical methodology for estimating the relationship between temperature and the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) and apply it to both published and novel data on virus replication for three internationally important orbiviruses (African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV)) in their Culicoides vectors. Our analyses show that there can be differences in vector competence for different orbiviruses in the same vector species and for the same orbivirus in different vector species. Both the rate of virus replication (approximately 0.017-0.021 per degree-day) and the minimum temperature required for replication (11-13°C), however, were generally consistent for different orbiviruses and across different Culicoides vector species. The estimates obtained in the present study suggest that previous publications have underestimated the replication rate and threshold temperature because the statistical methods they used included an implicit assumption that all negative vectors were infected. Conclusions/Significance Robust estimates of the temperature dependence of arbovirus replication are essential for building accurate models of transmission and for informing policy decisions about seasonal relaxations to movement restrictions. The methodology developed in this study provides the required robustness and is superior to methods used previously. Importantly, the methods are generic and can readily be applied to other arbovirus-vector systems, as long as the assumptions described in the text are valid.
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              COVID-19 as a factor influencing air pollution?

              Highlights • Longer-chain perfluoroalkyl substances strongly inhibited carboxylesterase. • The higher binding affinity caused more severe inhibition. • Inhibition kinetics was studied, and in vitro-in vivo extrapolation was performed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ucloe
                ucloe
                UCL Open Environment
                UCLOE
                UCL Press (UK )
                2632-0886
                12 May 2020
                : 1
                : 1-3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Research Associate, Institute for Environmental Design and Engineering, University College London, 2 Taviton Street, London WC1H 0BT, UK
                [2 ] Chair of Human Ecology, Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, 2 Taviton Street, London WC1H 0BT, UK
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Email: uclopen.enveditor@ 123456ucl.ac.uk
                Article
                10.14324/111.444/ucloe.000008
                Copyright © 2020 The Authors.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                References: 13, Pages: 3
                Categories
                Editorial

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