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      Dynamic hyperinflation and dyspnea during the 6-minute walk test in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

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          The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic hyperinflation and dyspnea and to clarify the characteristics of dyspnea during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Twenty-three subjects with stable moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (age 73.8±5.8 years, all male) took part in this study. During the 6MWT, ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were measured using a portable respiratory gas analysis system. Dyspnea and oxygen saturation were recorded at the end of every 2 minute period during the test. There was a significant decrease in inspiratory capacity during the 6MWT. This suggested that dynamic hyperinflation had occurred. Dyspnea showed a significant linear increase, and there was a significant negative correlation with inspiratory capacity. It was suggested that one of the reasons that dyspnea developed during the 6MWT was the dynamic hyperinflation. Even though the tidal volume increased little after 2 minutes, dyspnea increased linearly to the end of the 6MWT. These results suggest that the mechanisms generating dyspnea during the 6MWT were the sense of respiratory effort at an early stage and then the mismatch between central motor command output and respiratory system movement.

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          A qualitative systematic overview of the measurement properties of functional walk tests used in the cardiorespiratory domain.

          To perform a qualitative systematic overview of the measurement properties of the most commonly utilized walk tests in the cardiorespiratory domain: the 2-min walk test (2MWT), 6-min walk test (6MWT), 12-min walk test (12MWT), self-paced walk test (SPWT), and shuttle walk test (SWT). MEDLINE (1966 to January 2000) and CINAHL (1982 to December 1999) electronic databases were searched. Bibliographies of the retrieved articles were reviewed. Clinical trials and observational studies were included if they reported data on the validity, reliability, interpretability, or responsiveness of the 2MWT, 6MWT, 12MWT, SPWT, or SWT. Only studies conducted on patients with cardiac and/or respiratory involvement were included. Fifty-two studies examining measurement properties of the various walk tests were found: 5 studies on the 2MWT, 29 studies on the 6MWT, 13 studies on the 12MWT, 6 studies on the SPWT, and 4 studies on the SWT. Measurement properties were most strongly demonstrated for the 6MWT. Correlations of 6MWT distance and maximal oxygen consumption ranged from 0.51 to 0.90. A change in distance walked of at least 54 m was found to be clinically significant for the 6MWT. Reliability was shown to be optimized when the administration of walk tests was standardized and at least two practice walks were performed. Patients with increased likelihood of postoperative complications, hospitalization, and death were identified by analysis of distance walked. Measurement properties of the 6MWT have been the most extensively researched and established. In addition, the 6MWT is easy to administer, better tolerated, and more reflective of activities of daily living than the other walk tests. Therefore, the 6MWT is currently the test of choice when using a functional walk test for clinical or research purposes.
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            Role of inspiratory capacity on exercise tolerance in COPD patients with and without tidal expiratory flow limitation at rest.

            Expiratory flow limitation promotes dynamic hyperinflation during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with a consequent reduction in inspiratory capacity (IC), limiting their exercise tolerance. Therefore, the exercise capacity of patients with tidal expiratory flow limitation (FL) at rest should depend on the magnitude of IC. The presented study was designed to evaluate the role of FL on the relationship between resting IC, other respiratory function variables and exercise performance in COPD patients. Fifty-two patients were included in the study. Negative expiratory pressure (NEP) uptake (VO2,max) were measured during an incremental symptom-limited cycle exercise. Twenty-nine patients were FL at rest. The IC was normal in all non-FL patients, while in most FL subjects it was decreased. Both WRmax and VO2,max were lower in FL patients (p<0.001, each). A close relationship of WRmax and O2,max to IC was found (r=0.73 and 0.75, respectively; p<0.0001, each). In the whole group, stepwise regression analysis selected IC and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) (% predicted) as the only significant contributors to exercise tolerance. Subgroup analysis showed that IC was the sole predictor in FL patients, and FEV1/FVC in non-FL patients. Detection of flow limitation provides useful information on the factors that influence exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Accordingly, in patients with flow limitation, inspiratory capacity appears as the best predictor of exercise tolerance, reflecting the presence of dynamic hyperinflation.
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              No room to breathe: the importance of lung hyperinflation in COPD

              Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are progressively limited in their ability to undertake normal everyday activities by a combination of exertional dyspnoea and peripheral muscle weakness. COPD is characterised by expiratory flow limitation, resulting in air trapping and lung hyperinflation. Hyperinflation increases acutely under conditions such as exercise or exacerbations, with an accompanying sharp increase in the intensity of dyspnoea to distressing and intolerable levels. Air trapping, causing increased lung hyperinflation, can be present even in milder COPD during everyday activities. The resulting activity-related dyspnoea leads to a vicious spiral of activity avoidance, physical deconditioning, and reduced quality of life, and has implications for the early development of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease. Various strategies exist to reduce hyperinflation, notably long-acting bronchodilator treatment (via reduction in flow limitation and improved lung emptying) and an exercise programme (via decreased respiratory rate, reducing ventilatory demand), or their combination. Optimal bronchodilation can reduce exertional dyspnoea and increase a patient's ability to exercise, and improves the chance of successful outcome of a pulmonary rehabilitation programme. There should be a lower threshold for initiating treatments appropriate to the stage of the disease, such as long-acting bronchodilators and an exercise programme for patients with mild-to-moderate disease who experience persistent dyspnoea.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                17 January 2015
                : 10
                : 153-158
                [1 ]Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Akita, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Rehabilitation, Akita City Hospital, Akita, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Masahiro Satake, Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita, 010-8543, Japan, Tel +81 18 834 1111, Fax +81 18 884 6500, Email satake@
                © 2015 Satake et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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