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      Abscisic acid dynamics, signaling, and functions in plants

      1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 1 , 3 , 1 , 4
      Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
      Wiley

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          Seed dormancy and the control of germination.

          Seed dormancy is an innate seed property that defines the environmental conditions in which the seed is able to germinate. It is determined by genetics with a substantial environmental influence which is mediated, at least in part, by the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellins. Not only is the dormancy status influenced by the seed maturation environment, it is also continuously changing with time following shedding in a manner determined by the ambient environment. As dormancy is present throughout the higher plants in all major climatic regions, adaptation has resulted in divergent responses to the environment. Through this adaptation, germination is timed to avoid unfavourable weather for subsequent plant establishment and reproductive growth. In this review, we present an integrated view of the evolution, molecular genetics, physiology, biochemistry, ecology and modelling of seed dormancy mechanisms and their control of germination. We argue that adaptation has taken place on a theme rather than via fundamentally different paths and identify similarities underlying the extensive diversity in the dormancy response to the environment that controls germination.
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            Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism.

            The level of abscisic acid (ABA) in any particular tissue in a plant is determined by the rate of biosynthesis and catabolism of the hormone. Therefore, identifying all the genes involved in the metabolism is essential for a complete understanding of how this hormone directs plant growth and development. To date, almost all the biosynthetic genes have been identified through the isolation of auxotrophic mutants. On the other hand, among several ABA catabolic pathways, current genomic approaches revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A genes encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases, which catalyze the first committed step in the predominant ABA catabolic pathway. Identification of ABA metabolic genes has revealed that multiple metabolic steps are differentially regulated to fine-tune the ABA level at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, recent ongoing studies have given new insights into the regulation and site of ABA metabolism in relation to its physiological roles.
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              Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells.

              Drought is a major threat to agricultural production. Plants synthesize the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to drought, triggering a signalling cascade in guard cells that results in stomatal closure, thus reducing water loss. ABA triggers an increase in cytosolic calcium in guard cells ([Ca2+]cyt) that has been proposed to include Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. However, direct recordings of Ca2+ currents have been limited and the upstream activation mechanisms of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels remain unknown. Here we report activation of Ca2+-permeable channels in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis guard cells by hydrogen peroxide. The H2O2-activated Ca2+ channels mediate both influx of Ca2+ in protoplasts and increases in [Ca2+]cyt in intact guard cells. ABA induces the production of H2O2 in guard cells. If H2O2 production is blocked, ABA-induced closure of stomata is inhibited. Moreover, activation of Ca2+ channels by H2O2 and ABA- and H2O2-induced stomatal closing are disrupted in the recessive ABA-insensitive mutant gca2. These data indicate that ABA-induced H2O2 production and the H2O2-activated Ca2+ channels are important mechanisms for ABA-induced stomatal closing.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
                J. Integr. Plant Biol
                Wiley
                1672-9072
                1744-7909
                January 21 2020
                January 2020
                January 21 2020
                January 2020
                : 62
                : 1
                : 25-54
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology and CAS Center of Excellence in Molecular Plant SciencesChinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200032 China
                [2 ]University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100049 China
                [3 ]Department of Horticulture and Landscape ArchitecturePurdue University West Lafayette IN 47907 USA
                [4 ]State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Adaptation and Improvement, School of Life SciencesHenan University Kaifeng 475001 China
                Article
                10.1111/jipb.12899
                31850654
                b0263e6f-c0f2-436c-88eb-ae11bc763525
                © 2020

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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