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      Tetracycline antibiotics as precursors of dichloroacetamide and other disinfection byproducts during chlorination and chloramination

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          Abstract

          Pollution of natural water and even source water with pharmaceuticals is problematic worldwide and raises concern about the possibility of disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation during subsequent water treatment. In this study, the formation of DBPs, especially dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), was investigated during chlorination and chloramination of tetracyclines, which are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics. DBPs including DCAcAm were formed during chlorination and chloramination of tetracycline (TC). Although the concentrations and theoretical cytotoxicity of the DBPs formed from TC were affected by the contact time, disinfectant dose, and pH, DCAcAm was the main contributor determining the yields and cytotoxicity of the measured DBPs. The DCAcAm yields from four tetracycline antibiotics ranged from 0.43% to 54.26% for chlorination. For chloramination, the DCAcAm yields reached 44.57%, and the nitrogen in DCAcAm mainly came from tetracycline antibiotics rather than chloramines. ClO 2 pre-oxidation and UV photolysis decreased DCAcAm formation during chlorination and chloramination of TC. The high yields observed in this study suggest that tetracycline antibiotics are possible precursors of DCAcAm.

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          Highlights

          • Tetracycline antibiotics had high DCAcAm yields during chlor(am)ination.

          • DCAcAm was the major contributor to the DBP cytotoxicity from chloramination of TC.

          • Nitrogen in DCAcAm mainly came from tetracyclines during chloramination.

          • ClO 2 pre-oxidation decreased DCAcAm formation during chlor(am)ination of TC.

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          Most cited references55

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          Antibiotics in the aquatic environment--a review--part I.

          Although antibiotics have been used in large quantities for some decades, until recently the existence of these substances in the environment has received little notice. It is only in recent years that a more complex investigation of antibiotic substances has been undertaken in order to permit an assessment of the environmental risks they may pose. Within the last decade an increasing number of studies covering antibiotic input, occurrence, fate and effects have been published, but there is still a lack of understanding and knowledge about antibiotics in the aquatic environment despite the numerous studies performed. This review addresses the present state of knowledge concerning the input, occurrence, fate and effects of antibiotics in the environment. It brings up important questions that are still open, and addresses some significant issues which must be tackled in the future for a better understanding of the behavior of antibiotics in the environment, as well as the risks associated with their occurrence. Questions related to resistance in the environment that may be caused by antibiotics will be addressed in the second part.
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            Disinfection technology of hospital wastes and wastewater: Suggestions for disinfection strategy during coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China

            Hospitals are important sources of pollutants resulted from diagnostic, laboratory and research activities as well as medicine excretion by patients, which include active component of drugs and metabolite, chemicals, residues of pharmaceuticals, radioactive markers, iodinated contrast media, etc. The discharge of hospital wastes and wastewater, especially those without appropriate treatment would expose the public in danger of infection. In particular, under the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic context in China, it is of great significance to reduce the health risks to the public and environment. In this study, technologies of different types of hospital wastes and wastewater disinfection have been summarized. Liquid chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and ultraviolet irradiation disinfection are commonly used for hospital wastewater disinfection. While incineration, chemical disinfection, and physical disinfection are commonly used for hospital wastes disinfection. In addition, considering the characteristics of various hospital wastes, the classification and selection of corresponding disinfection technologies are discussed. On this basis, this study provides scientific suggestions for management, technology selection, and operation of hospital wastes and wastewater disinfection in China, which is of great significance for development of national disinfection strategy for hospital wastes and wastewater during COVID-19 pandemic.
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              Antibiotic pollution in surface fresh waters: Occurrence and effects

              Worldwide, antibiotic usage exceeds 100,000 tons per year and there is increasing concern over the fate of these substances. Antibiotics are ubiquitous in the environment and significant concentrations have been detected in fresh waters. In this review, we highlight important aspects of antibiotic pollution in fresh waters: that concentrations of antibiotics in the environment are substantial, that micro-organisms are susceptible to this, that bacteria can evolve resistance in the environment, and that antibiotic pollution affects natural food webs while interacting with other stressors; which taken together poses a number of challenges for environmental scientists. In the literature, we found examples of considerable antibiotic pollution in fresh waters. In the Americas, antibiotic concentrations of up to 15 μg/L have been measured; with higher concentrations reported from European and African studies (over 10 μg/L and 50 μg/L respectively), and in Asian-pacific countries concentrations over 450 μg/L have been detected. While these concentrations might not be deemed harmful to humans, non-target freshwater organisms could be affected by them. Bioassays show that some of the antibiotics found in surface waters affect microbes at concentrations below 10 μg/L. Among the most potent antibiotics are those that prevail in streams and rivers in these concentrations, such as ciprofloxacin. Sub-lethal concentrations might not kill prokaryotes but contribute to increased bacterial resistance and change the composition of single-celled communities, as demonstrated in laboratory experiments. This has implications for the microbial food web (e.g. interactions among and between bacteria and their protozoan consumers) and by extension, larger organisms and ecosystem health. The fact that the effects of antibiotics are extremely context-dependent represents a challenge, particularly for in vitro research. We suggest future research avenues, taking into account food web experiments, antibiotics interacting with one another (and other stressors) and discuss how these can help to answer multi-layered research questions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Chemosphere
                Chemosphere
                Chemosphere
                Published by Elsevier Ltd.
                0045-6535
                1879-1298
                14 October 2020
                14 October 2020
                Affiliations
                [a ]School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong, PR China
                [b ]Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong, PR China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong, PR China, (H. Huang)
                Article
                S0045-6535(20)32823-X 128628
                10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128628
                7556226
                b0279a0c-ecd1-4629-9e1d-ff51d80838a6
                © 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Article

                General environmental science
                tetracycline antibiotic,disinfection byproduct,dichloroacetamide,chlorination,chloramination

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