Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a valuable tool to detect the interaction in vivo between a DNA-associated protein and DNA fragments. Combined with approaches to assess gene expression in response to accumulation of a transcription factor, it is possible to identify direct responsive targets from targets that are indirectly responsive to accumulation of the transcription factor. ChIP may be used to confirm in vivo association of a transcriptional regulator with suspected target DNA fragments. ChIP may also be used to discover new targets, and when combined with high-throughput approaches to identify DNA fragments associated with a transcription factor, it may provide a tool to study the gene regulatory networks active during plant development and/or response to the environment. Furthermore, ChIP is also a powerful means to map epigenetic modifications within a genome.