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      Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance

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          Abstract

          Metal nanoshells are a class of nanoparticles with tunable optical resonances. In this article, an application of this technology to thermal ablative therapy for cancer is described. By tuning the nanoshells to strongly absorb light in the near infrared, where optical transmission through tissue is optimal, a distribution of nanoshells at depth in tissue can be used to deliver a therapeutic dose of heat by using moderately low exposures of extracorporeally applied near-infrared (NIR) light. Human breast carcinoma cells incubated with nanoshells in vitro were found to have undergone photothermally induced morbidity on exposure to NIR light (820 nm, 35 W/cm2), as determined by using a fluorescent viability stain. Cells without nanoshells displayed no loss in viability after the same periods and conditions of NIR illumination. Likewise, in vivo studies under magnetic resonance guidance revealed that exposure to low doses of NIR light (820 nm, 4 W/cm2) in solid tumors treated with metal nanoshells reached average maximum temperatures capable of inducing irreversible tissue damage (DeltaT = 37.4 +/- 6.6 degrees C) within 4-6 min. Controls treated without nanoshells demonstrated significantly lower average temperatures on exposure to NIR light (DeltaT < 10 degrees C). These findings demonstrated good correlation with histological findings. Tissues heated above the thermal damage threshold displayed coagulation, cell shrinkage, and loss of nuclear staining, which are indicators of irreversible thermal damage. Control tissues appeared undamaged.

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          Most cited references 25

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          The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in tumor vasculature: the key role of tumor-selective macromolecular drug targeting

           Hiroshi Maeda (2001)
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            Sterically stabilized liposomes: improvements in pharmacokinetics and antitumor therapeutic efficacy.

            The results obtained in this study establish that liposome formulations incorporating a synthetic polyethylene glycol-derivatized phospholipid have a pronounced effect on liposome tissue distribution and can produce a large increase in the pharmacological efficacy of encapsulated antitumor drugs. This effect is substantially greater than that observed previously with conventional liposomes and is associated with a more than 5-fold prolongation of liposome circulation time in blood, a marked decrease in uptake by tissues such as liver and spleen, and a corresponding increased accumulation in implanted tumors. These and other properties described here have expanded considerably the prospects of liposomes as an effective carrier system for a variety of pharmacologically active macromolecules.
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              A new hydrosol of gold clusters. 1. Formation and particle size variation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                May 01 2011
                November 11 2003
                November 03 2003
                November 11 2003
                : 100
                : 23
                : 13549-13554
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.2232479100
                263851
                14597719
                © 2003
                Product

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