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      Assessment of Longitudinal Reproducibility of Mice LV Function Parameters at 11.7 T Derived from Self-Gated CINE MRI

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          Abstract

          The objective of this work was the assessment of the reproducibility of self-gated cardiac MRI in mice at ultra-high-field strength. A group of adult mice ( n = 5) was followed over 360 days with a standardized MR protocol including reproducible animal position and standardized planning of the scan planes. From the resulting CINE MRI data, global left ventricular (LV) function parameters including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were quantified. The reproducibility of the self-gated technique as well as the intragroup variability and longitudinal changes of the investigated parameters was assessed. Self-gated cardiac MRI proved excellent reproducibility of the global LV function parameters, which was in the order of the intragroup variability. Longitudinal assessment did not reveal any significant variations for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF but an expected increase of the LVM with increasing age. In summary, self-gated MRI in combination with a standardized protocol for animal positioning and scan plane planning ensures reproducible assessment of global LV function parameters.

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          Clinical indications for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR): Consensus Panel report.

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            Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases

            Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.
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              New approaches in small animal echocardiography: imaging the sounds of silence.

              Systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) is a hallmark of most cardiac diseases. In vivo assessment of heart function in animal models, particularly mice, is essential to refining our understanding of cardiovascular disease processes. Ultrasound echocardiography has emerged as a powerful, noninvasive tool to serially monitor cardiac performance and map the progression of heart dysfunction in murine injury models. This review covers current applications of small animal echocardiography, as well as emerging technologies that improve evaluation of LV function. In particular, we describe speckle-tracking imaging-based regional LV analysis, a recent advancement in murine echocardiography with proven clinical utility. This sensitive measure enables an early detection of subtle myocardial defects before global dysfunction in genetically engineered and rodent surgical injury models. Novel visualization technologies that allow in-depth phenotypic assessment of small animal models, including perfusion imaging and fetal echocardiography, are also discussed. As imaging capabilities continue to improve, murine echocardiography will remain a critical component of the investigator's armamentarium in translating animal data to enhanced clinical treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2017
                22 February 2017
                : 2017
                Affiliations
                1Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany
                2Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, China
                3Core Facility Small Animal MRI, Medical Faculty, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
                4In-Vivo Imaging, Drug Development, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma Gmbh & Co. KG, Biberach, Germany
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Cristiana Corsi

                Article
                10.1155/2017/8392952
                5340939
                Copyright © 2017 Zhi Zuo et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Boehringer Ingelheim
                Award ID: PO8
                Categories
                Research Article

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