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      Comparison of dexmedetomidine and clonidine (α2 agonist drugs) as an adjuvant to local anaesthesia in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A randomised double-blind prospective study

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          Abstract

          Background and Objectives:

          Alpha-2 agonists are mixed with local anaesthetic agents to extend the duration of spinal, extradural and peripheral nerve blocks. We compared clonidine and dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local anaesthetic agent in supraclavicular brachial plexus block with respect to onset and duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia.

          Methods:

          Sixty ASA I and II patients scheduled for elective upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were divided into two equal groups in a randomized, double-blinded fashion. Group C received clonidine 1 μg/kg and Group D received dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg added to bupivacaine 0.25% (35 cc). Onset and recovery time of sensory and motor block, duration of analgesia and quality of block were studied in both the groups.

          Results:

          Duration of sensory block and motor block was 227.00±48.36 and 292.67±59.13 min, respectively, in group C, while it was 413.97±87.13 and 472.24±90.06 min, respectively, in group D. There was no statistically significant difference in onset of sensory and motor block between the two groups. The duration of analgesia (time to requirement of rescue analgesia) in group D was 456±97 min, while in group C, it was 289±62 min. Statistically, this difference was significant ( P=0.001). The number of patients achieving grade IV quality (excellent) of block was higher in group D (80%) as compared with group C (40%) ( P<0.05).

          Conclusion:

          Dexmedetomidine when added to local anaesthetic in supraclavicular brachial plexus block enhanced the duration of sensory and motor block and also the duration of analgesia. The time for rescue analgesia was prolonged in patients receiving dexmedetomidine. It also enhanced the quality of block as compared with clonidine.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Controlled sedation with alphaxalone-alphadolone.

          Alphaxalone-alphadolone (Althesin), diluted and administered as a controlled infusion, was used as a sedative for 30 patients in an intensive therapy unit. This technique allowed rapid and accurate control of the level of sedation. It had three particularly useful applications: it provided "light sleep," allowed rapid variation in the level of sedation, and enabled repeated assessment of the central nervous system.Sedation was satisfactory for 86% of the total time, and no serious complications were attributed to the use of the drug. Furthermore, though alphaxalone-alphadolone was given for periods up to 20 days there was no evidence of tachyphylaxis or delay in recovery time.
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            Effect of low-dose dexmedetomidine or clonidine on the characteristics of bupivacaine spinal block.

            The purpose of this study was to compare the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, as well as the hemodynamic changes and level of sedation, following intrathecal bupivacaine supplemented with either dexmedetomidine or clonidine. In a prospective, double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate or bladder tumor under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Group B received 12 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine, group D received 12 mg of bupivacaine supplemented with 3 microg of dexmedetomidine and group C received 12 mg of bupivacaine supplemented with 30 microg of clonidine. The onset times to reach peak sensory and motor levels, and the sensory and motor regression times, were recorded. Hemodynamic changes and the level of sedation were also recorded. Patients in groups D and C had a significantly shorter onset time of motor block and significantly longer sensory and motor regression times than patients in group B. The mean time of sensory regression to the S1 segment was 303 +/- 75 min in group D, 272 +/- 38 min in group C and 190 +/- 48 min in group B (B vs. D and B vs. C, P < 0.001). The regression of motor block to Bromage 0 was 250 +/- 76 min in group D, 216 +/- 35 min in group C and 163 +/- 47 min in group B (B vs. D and B vs. C, P < 0.001). The onset and regression times were not significantly different between groups D and C. The mean arterial pressure, heart rate and level of sedation were similar in the three groups intra-operatively and post-operatively. Dexmedetomidine (3 microg) or clonidine (30 microg), when added to intrathecal bupivacaine, produces a similar prolongation in the duration of the motor and sensory block with preserved hemodynamic stability and lack of sedation.
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              Perineural administration of dexmedetomidine in combination with bupivacaine enhances sensory and motor blockade in sciatic nerve block without inducing neurotoxicity in rat.

              The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that high-dose dexmedetomidine added to local anesthetic would increase the duration of sensory and motor blockade in a rat model of sciatic nerve blockade without causing nerve damage. Thirty-one adult Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral sciatic nerve blocks with either 0.2 ml bupivacaine, 0.5%, and 0.5% bupivacaine plus 0.005% dexmedetomidine in the contralateral extremity, or 0.2 ml dexmedetomidine, 0.005%, and normal saline in the contralateral extremity. Sensory and motor function were assessed by a blinded investigator every 30 min until the return of normal sensory and motor function. Sciatic nerves were harvested at either 24 h or 14 days after injection and analyzed for perineural inflammation and nerve damage. High-dose dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine significantly enhanced the duration of sensory and motor blockade. Dexmedetomidine alone did not cause significant motor or sensory block. All of the nerves analyzed had normal axons and myelin at 24 h and 14 days. Bupivacaine plus dexmedetomidine showed less perineural inflammation at 24 h than the bupivacaine group when compared with the saline control. The finding that high-dose dexmedetomidine can safely improve the duration of bupivacaine-induced antinociception after sciatic nerve blockade in rats is an essential first step encouraging future studies in humans. The dose of dexmedetomidine used in this study may exceed the sedative safety threshold in humans and could cause prolonged motor blockade; therefore, future work with clinically relevant doses is necessary.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Anaesth
                Indian J Anaesth
                IJA
                Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0019-5049
                0976-2817
                May-Jun 2012
                : 56
                : 3
                : 243-249
                Affiliations
                Department of Anesthesia, Bharati Vidyapeeth University Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Sarita S Swami, I-2/5, Rajyog, Sinhagad Road, Lagad Mala, Pune - 411 041, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: drswamisarita@ 123456yahoo.in
                Article
                IJA-56-243
                10.4103/0019-5049.98767
                3425283
                22923822
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Anaesthesia

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Clinical Investigation

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                clonidine, dexmedetomidine, supraclavicular block

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