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      Review of genetic factors in intestinal malrotation

      1 , 2 , , 1 , 2

      Pediatric Surgery International

      Springer-Verlag

      Intestinal malrotation, FOXF1, Genetics, Embryology

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          Abstract

          Intestinal malrotation is well covered in the surgical literature from the point of view of operative management, but few reviews to date have attempted to provide a comprehensive examination of the topic from the point of view of aetiology, in particular genetic aetiology. Following a brief overview of molecular embryology of midgut rotation, we present in this article instances of and case reports and case series of intestinal malrotation in which a genetic aetiology is likely. Autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked and chromosomal forms of the disorder are represented. Most occur in syndromic form, that is to say, in association with other malformations. In many instances, recognition of a specific syndrome is possible, one of several examples discussed being the recently described association of intestinal malrotation with alveolar capillary dysplasia, due to mutations in the forkhead box transcription factor FOXF1. New advances in sequencing technology mean that the identification of the genes mutated in these disorders is more accessible than ever, and paediatric surgeons are encouraged to refer to their colleagues in clinical genetics where a genetic aetiology seems likely.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Microarray based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) detects submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications in patients with learning disability/mental retardation and dysmorphic features.

          The underlying causes of learning disability and dysmorphic features in many patients remain unidentified despite extensive investigation. Routine karyotype analysis is not sensitive enough to detect subtle chromosome rearrangements (less than 5 Mb). The presence of subtle DNA copy number changes was investigated by array-CGH in 50 patients with learning disability and dysmorphism, employing a DNA microarray constructed from large insert clones spaced at approximately 1 Mb intervals across the genome. Twelve copy number abnormalities were identified in 12 patients (24% of the total): seven deletions (six apparently de novo and one inherited from a phenotypically normal parent) and five duplications (one de novo and four inherited from phenotypically normal parents). Altered segments ranged in size from those involving a single clone to regions as large as 14 Mb. No recurrent deletion or duplication was identified within this cohort of patients. On the basis of these results, we anticipate that array-CGH will become a routine method of genome-wide screening for imbalanced rearrangements in children with learning disability.
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            The forkhead transcription factor Foxf1 is required for differentiation of extra-embryonic and lateral plate mesoderm.

            The murine Foxf1 gene encodes a forkhead transcription factor expressed in extra-embryonic and lateral plate mesoderm and later in splanchnic mesenchyme surrounding the gut and its derivatives. We have disrupted Foxf1 and show that mutant embryos die at midgestation due to defects in mesodermal differentiation and cell adhesion. The embryos do not turn and become deformed by the constraints of a small, inflexible amnion. Extra-embryonic structures exhibit a number of differentiation defects: no vasculogenesis occurs in yolk sac or allantois; chorioallantoic fusion fails; the amnion does not expand with the growth of the embryo, but misexpresses vascular and hematopoietic markers. Separation of the bulk of yolk sac mesoderm from the endodermal layer and adherence between mesoderm of yolk sac and amnion, indicate altered cell adhesion properties and enhanced intramesodermal cohesion. A possible cause of this is misexpression of the cell-adhesion protein VCAM1 in Foxf1-deficient extra-embryonic mesoderm, which leads to co-expression of VCAM with its receptor, alpha(4)-integrin. The expression level of Bmp4 is decreased in the posterior part of the embryo proper. Consistent with this, mesodermal proliferation in the primitive streak is reduced and somite formation is retarded. Expression of Foxf1 and the homeobox gene Irx3 defines the splanchnic and somatic mesodermal layers, respectively. In Foxf1-deficient embryos incomplete separation of splanchnic and somatic mesoderm is accompanied by misexpression of Irx3 in the splanchnopleure, which implicates Foxf1 as a repressor of Irx3 and as a factor involved in coelom formation.
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              X-linked situs abnormalities result from mutations in ZIC3.

              Vertebrates position unpaired organs of the chest and abdomen asymmetrically along the left-right (LR) body axis. Each structure comes to lie non-randomly with respect to the midline in an overall position designated situs solitus, exemplified in humans by placement of the heart, stomach and spleen consistently to the left. Aberrant LR axis development can lead to randomization of individual organ position (situs ambiguus) or to mirror-image reversal of all lateralized structures (situs inversus). Previously we mapped a locus for situs abnormalities in humans, HTX1, to Xq26.2 by linkage analysis in a single family (LR1) and by detection of a deletion in an unrelated situs ambiguus male (Family LR2; refs 2,3). From this chromosomal region we have positionally cloned ZIC3, a gene encoding a putative zinc-finger transcription factor. One frameshift, two missense and two nonsense mutations have been identified in familial and sporadic situs ambiguus. The frameshift allele is also associated with situs inversus among some heterozygous females, suggesting that ZIC3 functions in the earliest stages of LR-axis formation. ZIC3, which has not been previously implicated in vertebrate LR-axis development, is the first gene unequivocally associated with human situs abnormalities.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +44-1223-834244 , +44-1223-494919 , css@sanger.ac.uk
                Journal
                Pediatr Surg Int
                Pediatric Surgery International
                Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0179-0358
                1437-9813
                13 June 2010
                13 June 2010
                August 2010
                : 26
                : 8
                : 769-781
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA UK
                [2 ]Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH UK
                Article
                2622
                10.1007/s00383-010-2622-5
                2908440
                20549505
                © The Author(s) 2010
                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag 2010

                Pediatrics

                genetics, foxf1, embryology, intestinal malrotation

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