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      The microanatomy of the central nervous system and brain of the Indo-Pacific seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri, during development

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          ABSTRACT The central nervous system (CNS) of Teleostei is a complex system of self-governance and its morphology is reflected in the physiological and reproductive behaviors. The Indo-Pacific seahorse, Hippocampus barbouri Jordan & Richard son, 1908, is a new candidate species for aquaculture in Thailand. In this study, we investigated the brain morphology of H. barbouri across various developmental windows. Light microscopic observations of adult brains revealed a large optic tectum in the mesencephalon, whereas the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum are of medium size. The detailed brain structures were generally similar to those of other teleosts; however, only five distinct layers were present in the optic tectum, including the stratum marginale, stratum opticum, stratum album central, stratum griseum central, and stratum periventriculae, versus six layers observed in other fish. One day after birth (1 DAB) the brain was a packed structure without any clear sub-structures. The number of capillaries in the optic tectum began to increase at 6 DAB, and at 14 DAB several features, including small blood vessels in the optic tectum and Purkinje cells, became noticeable. By 35 DAB, the optic tectum became highly vascularized and included five layers. Additionally, large Purkinje cells were developed in the cerebellum. Based on the brain development pattern, we speculate that the predatory ability of this fish starts to develop from 6 to 14 days after birth.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Stages of embryonic development of the zebrafish.

          We describe a series of stages for development of the embryo of the zebrafish, Danio (Brachydanio) rerio. We define seven broad periods of embryogenesis--the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, pharyngula, and hatching periods. These divisions highlight the changing spectrum of major developmental processes that occur during the first 3 days after fertilization, and we review some of what is known about morphogenesis and other significant events that occur during each of the periods. Stages subdivide the periods. Stages are named, not numbered as in most other series, providing for flexibility and continued evolution of the staging series as we learn more about development in this species. The stages, and their names, are based on morphological features, generally readily identified by examination of the live embryo with the dissecting stereomicroscope. The descriptions also fully utilize the optical transparancy of the live embryo, which provides for visibility of even very deep structures when the embryo is examined with the compound microscope and Nomarski interference contrast illumination. Photomicrographs and composite camera lucida line drawings characterize the stages pictorially. Other figures chart the development of distinctive characters used as staging aid signposts.
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            The evolution of self-control.

             E. MacLean,  B. Hare,  C Nunn (2014)
            Cognition presents evolutionary research with one of its greatest challenges. Cognitive evolution has been explained at the proximate level by shifts in absolute and relative brain volume and at the ultimate level by differences in social and dietary complexity. However, no study has integrated the experimental and phylogenetic approach at the scale required to rigorously test these explanations. Instead, previous research has largely relied on various measures of brain size as proxies for cognitive abilities. We experimentally evaluated these major evolutionary explanations by quantitatively comparing the cognitive performance of 567 individuals representing 36 species on two problem-solving tasks measuring self-control. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that absolute brain volume best predicted performance across species and accounted for considerably more variance than brain volume controlling for body mass. This result corroborates recent advances in evolutionary neurobiology and illustrates the cognitive consequences of cortical reorganization through increases in brain volume. Within primates, dietary breadth but not social group size was a strong predictor of species differences in self-control. Our results implicate robust evolutionary relationships between dietary breadth, absolute brain volume, and self-control. These findings provide a significant first step toward quantifying the primate cognitive phenome and explaining the process of cognitive evolution.
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              Environmental Complexity and Social Organization Sculpt the Brain in Lake Tanganyikan Cichlid Fish

              Complex brains and behaviors have occurred repeatedly within vertebrate classes throughout evolution. What adaptive pressures drive such changes? Both environmental and social features have been implicated in the expansion of select brain structures, particularly the telencephalon. East African cichlid fishes provide a superb opportunity to analyze the social and ecological correlates of neural phenotypes and their evolution. As a result of rapid, recent, and repeated radiations, there are hundreds of closely-related species available for study, with an astonishing diversity in habitat preferences and social behaviors. In this study, we present quantitative ecological, social, and neuroanatomical data for closely-related species from the (monophyletic) Ectodini clade of Lake Tanganyikan cichlid fish. The species differed either in habitat preference or social organization. After accounting for phylogeny with independent contrasts, we find that environmental and social factors differentially affect the brain, with environmental factors showing a broader effect on a range of brain structures compared to social factors. Five out of seven of the brain measures show a relationship with habitat measures. Brain size and cerebellar size are positively correlated with species number (which is correlated with habitat complexity); the medulla and olfactory bulb are negatively correlated with habitat measures. The telencephalon shows a trend toward a positive correlation with rock size. In contrast, only two brain structures, the telencephalon and hypothalamus, are correlated with social factors. Telencephalic size is larger in monogamous species compared to polygamous species, as well as with increased numbers of individuals; monogamy is also associated with smaller hypothalamic size. Our results suggest that selection or drift can act independently on different brain regions as the species diverge into different habitats and social systems.

                Author and article information

                Zoologia (Curitiba)
                Zoologia (Curitiba)
                Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia (Curitiba, PR, Brazil )
                : 37
                Victoria orgnameUniversity of Houston orgdiv1School of Arts and Sciences United States
                Thalang orgnamePhuket coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center orgdiv1Parklog sub-district Thailand
                Bangkok Central Thailand orgnameChulalongkorn University orgdiv1Faculty of Science orgdiv2Department of Marine Science Thailand
                Trang Central Thailand orgnameRajamangala University of Technology orgdiv1Faculty of Science and Fisheries Technology orgdiv2Department of Marine Science and Environment Thailand
                Bangkok Central Thailand orgnameChulalongkorn University orgdiv1Aquatic Resources Research Institute orgdiv2Marine Ecology and Marine Resources Utilization Research Unit Thailand
                S1984-46702020000100327 S1984-4670(20)03700000327

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                spinal cord, seahorse, Histology, Thailand


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