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      Goals and motivation related to work in later adulthood: An organizing framework

      , ,

      European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology

      Informa UK Limited

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          Most cited references 57

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          A life-span theory of control.

          A life-span theory of development is presented that is based on the concepts of primary and secondary control. Primary control refers to behaviors directed at the external environment and involves attempts to change the world to fit the needs and desires of the individual. Secondary control is targeted at internal processes and serves to minimize losses in, maintain, and expand existing levels of primary control. Secondary control helps the individual to cope with failure and fosters primary control by channeling motivational resources toward selected action goals throughout the life course. Primary control has functional primacy over secondary control. An analysis of extensive and diverse literatures spanning infancy through old age shows that trade-offs between primary and secondary control undergo systematic shifts across the life course in response to the opportunities and constraints encountered.
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            Psychological perspectives on successful aging: the model of selective optimization with compensation

             PB Baltes,  MM Baltes,  Baltes (1990)
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              Social and Emotional Aging

              The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity and those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, well-being, and emotional distress across adulthood.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
                European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
                Informa UK Limited
                1359-432X
                1464-0643
                June 2013
                June 2013
                : 22
                : 3
                : 253-264
                Article
                10.1080/1359432X.2012.734298
                © 2013

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