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      Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in critically ill patients (Part I): Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) 2017

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          Abstract

          To update the 2008 consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in adult and pediatric patients.

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          Most cited references34

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          Septic shock.

          Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, is a deadly disease. In recent years, exciting advances have been made in the understanding of its pathophysiology and treatment. Pathogens, via their microbial-associated molecular patterns, trigger sequential intracellular events in immune cells, epithelium, endothelium, and the neuroendocrine system. Proinflammatory mediators that contribute to eradication of invading microorganisms are produced, and anti-inflammatory mediators control this response. The inflammatory response leads to damage to host tissue, and the anti-inflammatory response causes leucocyte reprogramming and changes in immune status. The time-window for interventions is short, and treatment must promptly control the source of infection and restore haemodynamic homoeostasis. Further research is needed to establish which fluids and vasopressors are best. Some patients with septic shock might benefit from drugs such as corticosteroids or activated protein C. Other therapeutic strategies are under investigation, including those that target late proinflammatory mediators, endothelium, or the neuroendocrine system.
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            Hydrocortisone infusion for severe community-acquired pneumonia: a preliminary randomized study.

            We hypothesize that hydrocortisone infusion in severe community-acquired pneumonia attenuates systemic inflammation and leads to earlier resolution of pneumonia and a reduction in sepsis-related complications. In a multicenter trial, patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe community-acquired pneumonia received protocol-guided antibiotic treatment and were randomly assigned to hydrocortisone infusion or placebo. Hydrocortisone was given as an intravenous 200-mg bolus followed by infusion at a rate of 10 mg/hour for 7 days. Primary end-points of the study were improvement in Pa(O(2)):FI(O(2)) (Pa(O(2)):FI(O(2)) > 300 or >/= 100 increase from study entry) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) score by Study Day 8 and reduction in delayed septic shock. Forty-six patients entered the study. At study entry, the hydrocortisone group had lower Pa(O(2)):FI(O(2)), and higher chest radiograph score and C-reactive protein level. By Study Day 8, treated patients had, compared with control subjects, a significant improvement in Pa(O(2)):FI(O(2)) (p = 0.002) and chest radiograph score (p < 0.0001), and a significant reduction in C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.01), MODS score (p = 0.003), and delayed septic shock (p = 0.001). Hydrocortisone treatment was associated with a significant reduction in length of hospital stay (p = 0.03) and mortality (p = 0.009).
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              Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine.

              To develop consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients. A multidisciplinary, multispecialty task force of experts in critical care medicine was convened from the membership of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. In addition, international experts in endocrinology were invited to participate. The task force members reviewed published literature and provided expert opinion from which the consensus was derived. The consensus statements were developed using a modified Delphi methodology. The strength of each recommendation was quantified using the Modified GRADE system, which classifies recommendations as strong (grade 1) or weak (grade 2) and the quality of evidence as high (grade A), moderate (grade B), or low (grade C) based on factors that include the study design, the consistency of the results, and the directness of the evidence. The task force coined the term critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency to describe the dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that occurs during critical illness. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency is caused by adrenal insufficiency together with tissue corticosteroid resistance and is characterized by an exaggerated and protracted proinflammatory response. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency should be suspected in hypotensive patients who have responded poorly to fluids and vasopressor agents, particularly in the setting of sepsis. At this time, the diagnosis of tissue corticosteroid resistance remains problematic. Adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients is best made by a delta total serum cortisol of or = 7 days is recommended for septic shock. Methylprednisolone in a dose of 1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) for > or = 14 days is recommended in patients with severe early acute respiratory distress syndrome. Glucocorticoids should be weaned and not stopped abruptly. Reinstitution of treatment should be considered with recurrence of signs of sepsis, hypotension, or worsening oxygenation. Dexamethasone is not recommended to treat critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. The role of glucocorticoids in the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, liver failure, pancreatitis, those undergoing cardiac surgery, and other groups of critically ill patients requires further investigation. Evidence-linked consensus statements with regard to the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid deficiency in critically ill patients have been developed by a multidisciplinary, multispecialty task force.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Intensive Care Medicine
                Intensive Care Med
                Springer Nature
                0342-4642
                1432-1238
                December 2017
                September 21 2017
                : 43
                : 12
                : 1751-1763
                Article
                10.1007/s00134-017-4919-5
                28940011
                b0577361-702c-48b0-8ce4-9142341880c6
                © 2017

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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