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      What pacing strategy 800m and 1500m swimmers use? Translated title: Qual estratégia de prova que nadadores de 800m e 1500m usam?

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          Abstract

          Abstract Pacing strategy (PS) has a decisive impact on performance, especially on long-term races.The objective of this study is to characterize the PS used in swimming races of 800m and 1500m freestyle by the finalists of the Olympic trials of the United States, Europe and Brazil,and the Olympic finalists of 2016.Time partials of 63 athletes were analyzed using a decision tree and the CHAID method. The results showed that parabolic was adopted by swimmers of 800m, they start in first lap (29.67 ± 0.88 s), followed by an increase in time (+1.77 s) and a subsequent increase in time (32.04 ± 0.89 s), at the end, the swimmers presented an acceleration,reducing the average of the to 31.44 s. And by the free 1500m swimmers, divided into blocks with a faster average start (29.25 ± 1.15 s), half of the slowest race (30.30 ± 0.76 s), and a new acceleration at the end of the event (29.92 ± 1.12 s), both in the selective Olympic Games and the 2016 and 2016 Olympic final.The worst partials times were observed in the Brazilian Selective (Test Event) (31.11 ± 0.78 s). Medalist, despite presetting the same OS, can sustain a better rhythm throughout he 800m (31.52 ± 1.03 s) and 1500-m (29.80 ± 0.78). We conclude that parabolic PS is the optimal strategy adopted by swimmers of 800-m and 1500m freestyle.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo A estratégia de prova (EP) tem impacto determinante no desempenho esportivo, principalmente em provas de longa duração. O objetivo foi caracterizar a EP utilizada em provas de natação de 800m e 1500m livre por finalistas das seletivas olímpicas dos Estados Unidos, Europa, Brasil e finalistas olímpicos de 2016. As parciais de tempo de 63 atletas foram analisadas por meio de árvore de decisão, utilizando o método CHAID. Os resultados mostraram que a EP parabólica foi adotada pelas nadadoras de 800m, com início (29.67 ± 0.88 s) seguido de um aumento de tempo (+1.77 s) e posterior novo aumento de tempo (32.04 ± 0.89 s), ao término as atletas apresentaram uma aceleração reduzindo a média para próximo à 31.44 s. E pelos atletas de 1500m livre, divididos em blocos com média inicias mais rápidas (29.25 ± 1.15 s), meio da prova mais lento (30.30 ± 0.76 s) e nova aceleração ao final da prova (29.92 ± 1.12s), tanto nas seletivas olímpicas quanto na final olímpica de 2016. Os piores tempos das parciais foram observados na seletiva olímpica do Brasil (evento teste) (31.11 ± 0.78 s). Atletas medalhistas, apesar de apresentarem a mesma EP, conseguem sustentar um melhor ritmo ao longo da prova de 800m (31.52 ± 1.03 s) e 1500-m (29.80 ± 0.78). Conclui-se que a EP parabólica é a estratégia ótima adotada pelos nadadores de 800m e 1500m.

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          Most cited references24

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          Concept of an extracellular regulation of muscular metabolic rate during heavy exercise in humans by psychophysiological feedback.

          H Ulmer (1996)
          Efferent motor signals to skeletal muscles concern not only the space/ time pattern of motion, but also the setting of muscular performance and through this the control of the current metabolic rate. For an optimal adjustment of metabolic rate during heavy exercise-e.g. in athletic competitions-a feedback control system must exist, including a programmer that takes into consideration a finishing point (teleoanticipation). The presented experiments, using Borg's scale, indicate the existence and functioning of a system for optimal adjustment of performance during heavy exercise and the relevance of teleoanticipatory effects. Thus motor learning includes not only somatosensory control, but also metabolic control. With regard to migratory birds, such metabolic control would have to operate in the individual as well as in the migrating flock as a whole.
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            The physiological regulation of pacing strategy during exercise: a critical review.

            The regulation of the pacing strategy remains poorly understood, because much of classic physiology has focused on the factors that ultimately limit, rather than regulate, exercise performance. When exercise is self-paced and work rate is free to vary in response to external and internal physiological cues, then a complex system is proposed to be responsible for alterations in exercise intensity, possibly through altered activation of skeletal muscle motor units. The present review evaluates the evidence for such a complex system by investigating studies in which interventions such as elevated temperature, altered oxygen content of the air, reduced fuel availability and misinformation about distance covered have resulted in alterations to the pacing strategy. The review further investigates how such a pacing strategy might be regulated for optimal performance, while ensuring that irreversible physiological damage is not incurred.
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              An analysis of the pacing strategy adopted by elite competitors in 2000 m rowing.

              S Garland (2005)
              To determine the pacing strategies adopted by elite rowers in championship 2000 m races.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbcdh
                Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano
                Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum.
                Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil )
                1415-8426
                1980-0037
                2019
                : 21
                : e59851
                Affiliations
                [03] Castanhal Pará orgnameUniversidade Federal do Pará Brazil
                [02] Fortaleza Ceará orgnameUniversidade Federal do Ceará orgdiv1Instituto de Educação Física e Esportes Brazil
                [01] Ouro Preto Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Ouro Preto orgdiv1Centro Desportivo Brazil
                Article
                S1980-00372019000100326
                10.1590/1980-0037.2019v21e59851
                b0608877-8fa0-4279-ba6f-66c9bd97b935

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 29 May 2019
                : 22 October 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 0
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Categories
                Original Article

                Swimming,Esportes,Natação,Athletic performance,Sports,Desempenho atlético

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