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      The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation

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          Abstract

          Background

          The emergence of the COVID-19 and its consequences has led to fears, worries, and anxiety among individuals worldwide. The present study developed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) to complement the clinical efforts in preventing the spread and treating of COVID-19 cases.

          Methods

          The sample comprised 717 Iranian participants. The items of the FCV-19S were constructed based on extensive review of existing scales on fears, expert evaluations, and participant interviews. Several psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain its reliability and validity properties.

          Results

          After panel review and corrected item-total correlation testing, seven items with acceptable corrected item-total correlation (0.47 to 0.56) were retained and further confirmed by significant and strong factor loadings (0.66 to 0.74). Also, other properties evaluated using both classical test theory and Rasch model were satisfactory on the seven-item scale. More specifically, reliability values such as internal consistency ( α = .82) and test–retest reliability (ICC = .72) were acceptable. Concurrent validity was supported by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (with depression, r = 0.425 and anxiety, r = 0.511) and the Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Scale (with perceived infectability, r = 0.483 and germ aversion, r = 0.459).

          Conclusion

          The Fear of COVID-19 Scale, a seven-item scale, has robust psychometric properties. It is reliable and valid in assessing fear of COVID-19 among the general population and will also be useful in allaying COVID-19 fears among individuals.

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          Most cited references9

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

            The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and then spread rapidly worldwide, particularly to China, Japan, and South Korea. Scientists are endeavoring to find antivirals specific to the virus. Several drugs such as chloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, and favipiravir are currently undergoing clinical studies to test their efficacy and safety in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China; some promising results have been achieved thus far. This article summarizes agents with potential efficacy against SARS-CoV-2.
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              Social reaction toward the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mark.griffiths@ntu.ac.uk
                pakpour_amir@yahoo.com
                Journal
                Int J Ment Health Addict
                Int J Ment Health Addict
                International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
                Springer US (New York )
                1557-1874
                1557-1882
                27 March 2020
                : 1-9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.16890.36, ISNI 0000 0004 1764 6123, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, , The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, ; Hung Hom, Hong Kong
                [2 ]GRID grid.412888.f, ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, Pediatric Health Research Center, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [3 ]GRID grid.411521.2, ISNI 0000 0000 9975 294X, Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, , Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, ; Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]GRID grid.12361.37, ISNI 0000 0001 0727 0669, International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, , Nottingham Trent University, ; 50 Shakespeare Street, Nottingham, NG1 4FQ UK
                [5 ]GRID grid.412606.7, ISNI 0000 0004 0405 433X, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, , Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, ; Shahid Bahonar Blvd., Qazvin, 3419759811 Iran
                [6 ]GRID grid.118888.0, ISNI 0000 0004 0414 7587, Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, , Jönköping University, ; Jönköping, Sweden
                Article
                270
                10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8
                7100496
                32226353
                b065128c-8890-4450-baf6-27793810215c
                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                Categories
                Brief Report

                Health & Social care
                covid-19,fear,iran,psychometrics,fear of covid-19 scale
                Health & Social care
                covid-19, fear, iran, psychometrics, fear of covid-19 scale

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