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      Hyponatremia in Patients with Heart Failure beyond the Neurohormonal Activation Associated with Reduced Cardiac Output: A Holistic Approach


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          Background: Heart failure (HF) is considered an epidemic disease with considerable morbidity, mortality, and immense healthcare costs. Electrolyte abnormalities are often encountered in patients with HF, posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Hyponatremia affects up to one-third of HF patients and represents an unfavorable prognostic factor. Summary: Low sodium levels in HF are mainly attributed to the neurohormonal activation secondary to decreased effective circulating volume. However, patients with HF often have several comorbidities which may cause or exacerbate the preexisting hyponatremia. Factors that provoke HF, such as alcohol overconsumption, may also be involved in hyponatremia development. Furthermore, drugs which are frequently prescribed to HF patients, especially diuretics, are potential culprits of hyponatremia and should always be addressed since their withdrawal may reverse hyponatremia. Despite the great prevalence and deleterious effects of hyponatremia in these patients, it is often overlooked and consequently undertreated. In this review, we present the mechanisms involved in the development of hyponatremia focusing on those besides neurohormonal activation. We also discuss the proper management of this electrolyte disorder which is frequently complex in patients with HF. Key Messages: Hyponatremia in patients with HF is not only the result of neurohormonal activation; several comorbidities and frequently used drugs should also be addressed. Hence, a holistic approach is required both for the diagnosis and optimal treatment.

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          Most cited references159

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          2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.

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            Hyponatremia and Inflammation: The Emerging Role of Interleukin-6 in Osmoregulation

            Although hyponatremia is a recognized complication of several inflammatory diseases, its pathophysiology in this setting has remained elusive until recently. A growing body of evidence now points to an important role for interleukin-6 in the non-osmotic release of vasopressin. Here, we review this evidence by exploring the immuno-neuroendocrine pathways connecting interleukin-6 with vasopressin. The importance of these connections extends to several clinical scenarios of hyponatremia and inflammation, including hospital-acquired hyponatremia, postoperative hyponatremia, exercise-associated hyponatremia, and hyponatremia in the elderly. Besides insights in pathophysiology, the recognition of the propensity for antidiuresis during inflammation is also important with regard to monitoring patients and selecting the appropriate intravenous fluid regimen, for which recommendations are provided.
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              Diagnosis and management of hyponatremia in cancer patients.

              Hyponatremia, a common electrolyte abnormality in oncology practice, may be a negative prognostic factor in cancer patients based on a systematic analysis of published studies. The largest body of evidence comes from small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), for which hyponatremia was identified as an independent risk factor for poor outcome in six of 13 studies. Hyponatremia in the cancer patient is usually caused by the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), which develops more frequently with SCLC than with other malignancies. SIADH may be driven by ectopic production of arginine vasopressin (AVP) by tumors or by effects of anticancer and palliative medications on AVP production or action. Other factors may cause hypovolemic hyponatremia, including diarrhea and vomiting caused by cancer therapy. Hyponatremia may be detected on routine laboratory testing before or during cancer treatment or may be suggested by the presence of mostly neurological symptoms. Treatment depends on several factors, including symptom severity, onset timing, and extracellular volume status. Appropriate diagnosis is important because treatment differs by etiology, and choosing the wrong approach can worsen the electrolyte abnormality. When hyponatremia is caused by SIADH, hypertonic saline is indicated for acute, symptomatic cases, whereas fluid restriction is recommended to achieve a slower rate of correction for chronic asymptomatic hyponatremia. Pharmacological therapy may be necessary when fluid restriction is insufficient. The orally active, selective AVP receptor 2 (V(2))-receptor antagonist tolvaptan provides a mechanism-based option for correcting hyponatremia caused by SIADH or other conditions with inappropriate AVP elevations. By blocking AVP effects in the renal collecting duct, tolvaptan promotes aquaresis, leading to a controlled increase in serum sodium levels.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 2022
                21 September 2022
                : 147
                : 5-6
                : 507-520
                [_a] aDepartment of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
                [_b] b2nd Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
                526912 Cardiology 2022;147:507–520
                © 2022 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

                : 20 December 2021
                : 18 August 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 14
                The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
                HF and Intensive Care: Review Article

                Comorbidities,Heart failure,Sodium,Hyponatremia
                Comorbidities, Heart failure, Sodium, Hyponatremia


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