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      Case report: Disseminated gonococcal infection, a story of camouflage and deceit


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          We report on a 38-year-old male patient with disseminated gonococcal infection. Preceding the discharge diagnosis, the patient was treated regarding rheumatoid arthritis, which resulted in the deterioration of the patient's medical condition due to the immunomodulatory nature of the applied medication. The causative agent was identified by culturing joint puncture fluid inoculated into blood culture vials. Primary infection with the pathogen could not be pinpointed in terms of time, but on further questioning, the patient reported intimate contacts with a number of different male partners, which may be assumed to have included the infection source. The case hereby demonstrates the impact that an early misdiagnosis and a limited anamnesis can have on the progress of a patient's disease. Furthermore, this case has helped us to propose possible improvements in both clinical and microbiological diagnostic approaches.

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          Epidemiology of gonorrhoea: a global perspective

          Although understanding the local epidemiology of gonorrhoea is critical for local efforts, understanding the multinational epidemiology may support development of national and international prevention and control policies and strategies. In this paper, current epidemiology of gonorrhoea is reviewed through an international lens and with a focus on selected populations. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that ~87 million new gonococcal infections occurred among people aged 15–49 years in 2016. Gonorrhoea rates are rising in many countries. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, racial or ethnic minorities, Indigenous populations and sex workers appear to bear disproportionate burdens of gonorrhoea. International travel can facilitate spread of gonorrhoea, including resistant strains, across international borders. Critical gaps in epidemiological knowledge are highlighted, including data on gonorrhoea among transgender persons and the burden of extragenital gonorrhoea. Even as further data are gathered, action — informed by currently available data — is needed now to confront this growing international threat.
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            Disseminated Gonococcal Infection in Women

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              Global progress report on HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections, 2021


                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                19 April 2023
                07 July 2023
                : 13
                : 1
                : 24-28
                [1 ] Department of Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Bundeswehr Central Hospital Koblenz , 56070, Koblenz, Germany
                [2 ] Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn , 53127, Bonn, Germany
                [3 ] Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn , 53127, Bonn, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Department of Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Bundeswehr Central Hospital Koblenz , Andernacher Straße 100, 56070, Koblenz, Germany. E-mail: niklasklein@ 123456bundeswehr.org
                Author information
                © 2023 The Author(s)

                Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 19 January 2023
                : 29 March 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 13, Pages: 05

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                disseminated gonococcal infection,pathogen identification,STD,septic arthritis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae


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