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      The Rehabilitation Role in Chronic Kidney and End Stage Renal Disease

      Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

      S. Karger AG

      Chronic kidney disease, Disability, Rehabilitation, Exercise, Hemodialysis

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          Abstract

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide is rising markedly becoming a priority public health problem. The progression of CKD cause functional limitation and severe disability with poor quality of life. The aim of present review was to highlight the effect of rehabilitation in CKD and ESRD subjects. The rehabilitative process is unique in treating disabled people according to a holistic approach with the aim of supporting a person's independent living and autonomy. CKD are associated with an increased risk of functional impairment, independent of age, gender, and co-morbidities. Clinicians should counsel patients with CKD including frail elder people to increase physical activity levels and target that regular physical activity including aerobic or endurance exercises training benefits health. In old subjects with CKD and multiple functional impairments, the traditional disease based model should be changed to individualized patient-centered approach that prioritizes patient preferences. Patients receiving haemodialysis have a considerably lower exercise tolerance, functional capacity, and more muscle wasting than healthy subjects or patients with less severe CKD. Exercise training or comprehensive multi-dimensional strategy and goal-oriented intervention should be also provided in ESRD older subjects. Structured prevention programs based on reducing the risk factors for CKD and rehabilitative strategies could reduce disability occurrence.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Summary of the Updated American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society clinical practice guideline for prevention of falls in older persons.

            (2010)
          The following article is a summary of the American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society Clinical Practice Guideline for Prevention of Falls in Older Persons (2010). This article provides additional discussion of the guideline process and the differences between the current guideline and the 2001 version and includes the guidelines' recommendations, algorithm, and acknowledgments. The complete guideline is published on the American Geriatrics Society's Web site (http://www.americangeriatrics.org/health_care_professionals/clinical_practice/clinical_guidelines_recommendations/2010/). © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.
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            Functional status of elderly adults before and after initiation of dialysis.

            It is unclear whether functional status before dialysis is maintained after the initiation of this therapy in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Using a national registry of patients undergoing dialysis, which was linked to a national registry of nursing home residents, we identified all 3702 nursing home residents in the United States who were starting treatment with dialysis between June 1998 and October 2000 and for whom at least one measurement of functional status was available before the initiation of dialysis. Functional status was measured by assessing the degree of dependence in seven activities of daily living (on the Minimum Data Set-Activities of Daily Living [MDS-ADL] scale of 0 to 28 points, with higher scores indicating greater functional difficulty). The median MDS-ADL score increased from 12 during the 3 months before the initiation of dialysis to 16 during the 3 months after the initiation of dialysis. Three months after the initiation of dialysis, functional status had been maintained in 39% of nursing home residents, but by 12 months after the initiation of dialysis, 58% had died and predialysis functional status had been maintained in only 13%. In a random-effects model, the initiation of dialysis was associated with a sharp decline in functional status, indicated by an increase of 2.8 points in the MDS-ADL score (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 3.0); this decline was independent of age, sex, race, and functional-status trajectory before the initiation of dialysis. The decline in functional status associated with the initiation of dialysis remained substantial (1.7 points; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.1), even after adjustment for the presence or absence of an accelerated functional decline during the 3-month period before the initiation of dialysis. Among nursing home residents with ESRD, the initiation of dialysis is associated with a substantial and sustained decline in functional status. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Exercise in the end-stage renal disease population.

              Many of the known benefits of exercise in the general population are of particular relevance to the ESRD population. In addition, the poor physical functioning that is experienced by patients who are on dialysis is potentially addressable through exercise interventions. The study of exercise in the ESRD population dates back almost 30 yr, and numerous interventions, including aerobic training, resistance exercise training, and combined training programs, have reported beneficial effects. Recently, interventions during hemodialysis sessions have become more popular and have been shown to be safe. The risks of exercise in this population have not been rigorously studied, but there have been no reports of serious injury as a result of participation in an exercise training program. It is time that we incorporate exercise into the routine care of patients who are on dialysis, but identification of an optimal training regimen or regimens, according to patient characteristics or needs, is still needed to facilitate implementation of exercise programs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-318-02734-1
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2014
                August 2014
                29 July 2014
                : 39
                : 2-3
                : 180-188
                Affiliations
                Rehabilitation Medicine and Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit, Scientific Institute, Hospital ‘Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza', San Giovanni Rotondo (Foggia), Italy
                Article
                355795 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:180-188
                10.1159/000355795
                25118006
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Pages: 9
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