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      Peri-implantitis

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 4
      Journal of Periodontology
      Wiley

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          Abstract

          This narrative review provides an evidence-based overview on peri-implantitis for the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions.

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          Most cited references130

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          The long-term effect of a plaque control program on tooth mortality, caries and periodontal disease in adults. Results after 30 years of maintenance.

          The biofilm that forms and remains on tooth surfaces is the main etiological factor in caries and periodontal disease. Prevention of caries and periodontal disease must be based on means that counteract this bacterial plaque. To monitor the incidence of tooth loss, caries and attachment loss during a 30-year period in a group of adults who maintained a carefully managed plaque control program. In addition, a comparison was made regarding the oral health status of individuals who, in 1972 and 2002, were 51-65 years old. In 1971 and 1972, more than 550 subjects were recruited. Three hundred and seventy-five subjects formed a test group and 180 a control group. After 6 years of monitoring, the control group was discontinued but the participants in the test group was maintained in the preventive program and was finally re-examined after 30 years. The following variables were studied at Baseline and after 3, 6, 15 and 30 years: plaque, caries, probing pocket depth, probing attachment level and CPITN. Each patient was given a detailed case presentation and education in self-diagnosis. Once every 2 months during the first 2 years, once every 3-12 months during years 3-30, the participants received, on an individual need basis, additional education in self-diagnosis and self-care focused on proper plaque control measures, including the use of toothbrushes and interdental cleaning devices (brush, dental tape, toothpick). The prophylactic sessions that were handled by a dental hygienist also included (i) plaque disclosure and (ii) professional mechanical tooth cleaning including the use of a fluoride-containing dentifrice/paste. Few teeth were lost during the 30 years of maintenance; 0.4-1.8 in different age cohorts. The main reason for tooth loss was root fracture; only 21 teeth were lost because of progressive periodontitis or caries. The mean number of new caries lesions was 1.2, 1.7 and 2.1 in the three groups. About 80% of the lesions were classified as recurrent caries. Most sites, buccal sites being the exception, exhibited no sign of attachment loss. Further, on approximal surfaces there was some gain of attachment between 1972 and 2002 in all age groups. The present study reported on the 30-year outcome of preventive dental treatment in a group of carefully monitored subjects who on a regular basis were encouraged, but also enjoyed and recognized the benefit of, maintaining a high standard of oral hygiene. The incidence of caries and periodontal disease as well as tooth mortality in this subject sample was very small. Since all preventive and treatment efforts during the 30 years were delivered in one private dental office, caution must be exercised when comparisons are made with longitudinal studies that present oral disease data from randomly selected subject samples.
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            Clinical research on peri-implant diseases: consensus report of Working Group 4.

            Two systematic reviews have evaluated the quality of research and reporting of observational studies investigating the prevalence of, the incidence of and the risk factors for peri-implant diseases and of experimental clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic interventions.
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              Effectiveness of Implant Therapy Analyzed in a Swedish Population: Prevalence of Peri-implantitis.

              Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease affecting soft and hard tissues surrounding dental implants. As the global number of individuals that undergo restorative therapy through dental implants increases, peri-implantitis is considered as a major and growing problem in dentistry. A randomly selected sample of 588 patients who all had received implant-supported therapy 9 y earlier was clinically and radiographically examined. Prevalence of peri-implantitis was assessed and risk indicators were identified by multilevel regression analysis. Forty-five percent of all patients presented with peri-implantitis (bleeding on probing/suppuration and bone loss >0.5 mm). Moderate/severe peri-implantitis (bleeding on probing/suppuration and bone loss >2 mm) was diagnosed in 14.5%. Patients with periodontitis and with ≥4 implants, as well as implants of certain brands and prosthetic therapy delivered by general practitioners, exhibited higher odds ratios for moderate/severe peri-implantitis. Similarly, higher odds ratios were identified for implants installed in the mandible and with crown restoration margins positioned ≤1.5 mm from the crestal bone at baseline. It is suggested that peri-implantitis is a common condition and that several patient- and implant-related factors influence the risk for moderate/severe peri-implantitis (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01825772).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Periodontology
                J Periodontol
                Wiley
                00223492
                June 2018
                June 2018
                June 21 2018
                : 89
                : S267-S290
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Oral Surgery and Implantology; Carolinum; Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt; Frankfurt Germany
                [2 ]Department of Periodontology; Institute of Odontology; The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg; Gothenburg Sweden
                [3 ]Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology; ZMK School of Dentistry; University of Bern; Bern Switzerland
                [4 ]Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine; University of Michigan School of Dentistry; Ann Arbor MI, USA
                Article
                10.1002/JPER.16-0350
                29926957
                b06fdd42-8015-48c6-b366-8fe7f2f57f14
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

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