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      Finite Element Analysis of Shock Absorption of Porous Soles Established by Grasshopper and UG Secondary Development

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      Mathematical Problems in Engineering

      Hindawi Limited

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          Abstract

          On the basis of computer aided modeling technology, this paper proposes a porous structure modeling method based on Grasshopper visual programming language and Unigraphics NX (UG) secondary development platform. The finite element model of the foot was established, and then models of shoe soles with four basic porous structures of cross, diamond, star, and x were established. Each structure was set with a cylindrical radius of 1, 2, and 3 mm, and a total of 12 porous structure sole models were established. The shock absorption effect of the sole on the foot was evaluated by the deformation of the sole, the peak plantar pressure, and the peak stress of metatarsal bones. It is found that the maximum value of the sole deformation of the diamond porous sole is 4.725 mm, the peak plantar pressure is 105.1 Pa, and the first and second metatarsal peak pressures are 2.230 MPa and 3.407 MPa, which have the best shock absorption effect. It shows that the porous structure plays an important role in the cushioning of the sole. The biomechanical effects of porous soles on feet are studied by computer-aided technology and finite element analysis. This study provides a new research method for the cushioning design of shoe soles and has important reference value for the design of footwear.

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          Most cited references 17

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          The biomechanics of running.

          This review article summarizes the current literature regarding the analysis of running gait. It is compared to walking and sprinting. The current state of knowledge is presented as it fits in the context of the history of analysis of movement. The characteristics of the gait cycle and its relationship to potential and kinetic energy interactions are reviewed. The timing of electromyographic activity is provided. Kinematic and kinetic data (including center of pressure measurements, raw force plate data, joint moments, and joint powers) and the impact of changes in velocity on these findings is presented. The status of shoewear literature, alterations in movement strategies, the role of biarticular muscles, and the springlike function of tendons are addressed. This type of information can provide insight into injury mechanisms and training strategies. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
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            Three-dimensional printing of hierarchical and tough mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds with a controllable pore architecture, excellent mechanical strength and mineralization ability.

            New generation biomaterials for bone regeneration should be highly bioactive, resorbable and mechanically strong. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG), a novel bioactive material, has been used to study bone regeneration due to its excellent bioactivity, degradation and drug delivery ability, however, the construction of three-dimensional (3-D) MBG scaffolds (as for other bioactive inorganic scaffolds) for bone regeneration remains a significant challenge due to their inherent brittleness and low strength. In this brief communication we report a new facile method to prepare hierarchical and multifunctional MBG scaffolds with a controllable pore architecture, excellent mechanical strength and mineralization ability for application in bone regeneration by a modified 3-D printing technique using polyvinylalcohol (PVA) as a binder. The method provides a new way to solve commonly existing issues for inorganic scaffold materials, for example, uncontrollable pore architectures, low strength, high brittleness and the requirement for a second sintering at high temperature. The 3-D printed MBG scaffolds obtained possess a high mechanical strength about 200 times that of traditional polyurethane foam templated MBG scaffolds. They have a highly controllable pore architecture, excellent apatite mineralization ability and sustained drug delivery properties. Our study indicates that 3-D printed MBG scaffolds may be an excellent candidate for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners.

              Humans have engaged in endurance running for millions of years, but the modern running shoe was not invented until the 1970s. For most of human evolutionary history, runners were either barefoot or wore minimal footwear such as sandals or moccasins with smaller heels and little cushioning relative to modern running shoes. We wondered how runners coped with the impact caused by the foot colliding with the ground before the invention of the modern shoe. Here we show that habitually barefoot endurance runners often land on the fore-foot (fore-foot strike) before bringing down the heel, but they sometimes land with a flat foot (mid-foot strike) or, less often, on the heel (rear-foot strike). In contrast, habitually shod runners mostly rear-foot strike, facilitated by the elevated and cushioned heel of the modern running shoe. Kinematic and kinetic analyses show that even on hard surfaces, barefoot runners who fore-foot strike generate smaller collision forces than shod rear-foot strikers. This difference results primarily from a more plantarflexed foot at landing and more ankle compliance during impact, decreasing the effective mass of the body that collides with the ground. Fore-foot- and mid-foot-strike gaits were probably more common when humans ran barefoot or in minimal shoes, and may protect the feet and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries now experienced by a high percentage of runners.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Mathematical Problems in Engineering
                Mathematical Problems in Engineering
                Hindawi Limited
                1563-5147
                1024-123X
                November 18 2020
                November 18 2020
                : 2020
                : 1-12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, China
                Article
                10.1155/2020/2652137
                © 2020

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