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      Six new dactylogyrid species (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) from the gills of cichlids (Teleostei, Cichliformes) from the Lower Congo Basin Translated title: Six espèces nouvelles de Dactylogyridae (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) parasites des branchies de cichlidés (Teleostei, Cichliformes) du bassin du Bas Congo

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          Abstract

          The Lower Congo Basin is characterized by a mangrove-lined estuary at its mouth and, further upstream, by many hydrogeographical barriers such as rapids and narrow gorges. Five localities in the mangroves and four from (upstream) left bank tributaries or pools were sampled. On the gills of Coptodon tholloni, Coptodon rendalli, Hemichromis elongatus, Hemichromis stellifer and Tylochromis praecox, 17 species of parasites (Dactylogyridae & Gyrodactylidae, Monogenea) were found, eight of which are new to science. Six of these are herein described: Cichlidogyrus bixlerzavalai n. sp. and Cichlidogyrus omari n. sp. from T. praecox, Cichlidogyrus calycinus n. sp. and Cichlidogyrus polyenso n. sp. from H. elongatus, Cichlidogyrus kmentovae n. sp. from H. stellifer and Onchobdella ximenae n. sp. from both species of Hemichromis. On Cichlidogyrus reversati a ridge on the accessory piece was discovered that connects to the basal bulb of the penis. We report a putative spillback effect of the native parasites Cichlidogyrus berradae, Cichlidogyrus cubitus and Cichlidogyrus flexicolpos from C. tholloni to the introduced C. rendalli. From our results, we note that the parasite fauna of Lower Congo has a higher affinity with the fauna of West African and nearby freshwater ecoregions than it has with fauna of other regions of the Congo Basin and Central Africa.

          Translated abstract

          Le cours du Bas Congo est caractérisé par un estuaire bordé de mangroves et, plus en amont, par de nombreuses barrières hydro-géographiques formées de rapides ou de gorges étroites. Nous avons échantillonné dans cinq localités au niveau des mangroves et dans quatre autres en amont sur la rive gauche du fleuve, dans des affluents ou des étangs. Nous avons trouvé, sur les branchies de Coptodon tholloni, Coptodon rendalli, Hemichromis elongatus, Hemichromis stellifer et Tylochromis praecox, 17 espèces de parasites (Dactylogyridae et Gyrodactylidae, Monogenea), dont huit sont nouvelles pour la science. Six d’entre elles sont décrites ici : Cichlidogyrus bixlerzavalai n. sp. et Cichlidogyrus omari n. sp. sur T. praecox, Cichlidogyrus calycinus n. sp. et Cichlidogyrus polyenso n. sp. sur H. elongatus, Cichlidogyrus kmentovae n. sp. sur H. stellifer et Onchobdella ximenae n. sp. sur les deux espèces d’ Hemichromis. Nous décrivons, chez Cichlidogyrus reversati, une arête sur la pièce accessoire qui la connecte avec l’ampoule basale basal du pénis. Nous notons un probable transfert latéral des espèces autochtones Cichlidogyrus berradae, Cichlidogyrus cubitus et Cichlidogyrus flexicolpos de C. tholloni vers l’espèce introduite C. rendalli. Nos résultats montrent que la faune parasitaire du Bas Congo présente plus d’affinités avec les faunes d’Afrique de l’Ouest ou des écorégions d’eau douce voisines, qu’avec celles des autres parties du bassin du Congo ou de l’Afrique Centrale.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Roles of parasites in animal invasions.

          Biological invasions are global threats to biodiversity and parasites might play a role in determining invasion outcomes. Transmission of parasites from invading to native species can occur, aiding the invasion process, whilst the 'release' of invaders from parasites can also facilitate invasions. Parasites might also have indirect effects on the outcomes of invasions by mediating a range of competitive and predatory interactions among native and invading species. Although pathogen outbreaks can cause catastrophic species loss with knock-on effects for community structure, it is less clear what impact persistent, sub-lethal parasitism has on native-invader interactions and community structure. Here, we show that the influence of parasitism on the outcomes of animal invasions is more subtle and wide ranging than has been previously realized.
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            Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the haplotilapiine cichlid fishes formerly referred to as "Tilapia".

            African cichlids formerly referred to as "Tilapia" represent a paraphyletic species assemblage belonging to the so called haplotilapiine lineage which gave rise to the spectacular East African cichlid radiations (EARs) as well as to globally important aquaculture species. We present a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of representative haplotilapiine cichlids, combining in one data set four mitochondrial and five nuclear loci for 76 species, and compare it with phylogenetic information of a second data set of 378 mitochondrial ND2 haplotypes representing almost all important "Tilapia" or Tilapia-related lineages as well as most EAR lineages. The monophyly of haplotilapiines is supported, as is the nested sister group relationship of Etia and mouthbrooding tilapiines with the remaining haplotilapiines. The latter are consistently placed in eight monophyletic clades over all datasets and analyses, but several dichotomous phylogenetic relationships appear compromised by cytonuclear discordant phylogenetic signal. Based on these results as well as on extensive morphological evidence we propose a novel generic and suprageneric classification including a (re-)diagnosis of 20 haplotilapiine cichlid genera and nine tribes. New tribes are provided for the former subgenera Coptodon Gervais, 1853, HeterotilapiaRegan, 1920 and PelmatolapiaThys van den Audenaerde, 1969, in addition for "Tilapia" joka, Tilapia sensu stricto and Chilochromis, Etia, Steatocranus sensu stricto, the mouthbrooding tilapiines and for a clade of West African tilapiines.
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              Monogeneans of West African Cichlid Fish: Evolution and Cophylogenetic Interactions

              The goals of this paper were to investigate phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of cichlid fish from West Africa and their Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus monogenean parasites, to uncover the presence of host-parasite cospeciation and to assess the level of morphological adaptation in parasites. This required the following steps, each one representing specific objectives of this paper: (1) to build phylogenetic trees for Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species based on ribosomal DNA sequences, (2) to investigate phylogenetic relationships within West African cichlid fish based on the analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences, (3) to investigate host-parasite cophylogenetic history to gain clues on parasite speciation process, and (4) to investigate the link between the morphology of the attachment apparatus and parasite phylogeny. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyletic origin of the Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus group, and suggested that Cichlidogyrus is polyphyletic and that Scutogyrus is monophyletic. The phylogeny of Cichlidae supported the separation of mouthbrooders and substrate-brooders and is consistent with the hypothesis that the mouthbrooding behavior of Oreochromis and Sarotherodon evolved from substrate-brooding behavior. The mapping of morphological characters of the haptor onto the parasite phylogenetic tree suggests that the attachment organ has evolved from a very simple form to a more complex one. The cophylogenetic analyses indicated a significant fit between trees using distance-based tests, but no significant cospeciation signal using tree-based tests, suggesting the presence of parasite duplications and host switches on related host species. This shed some light on the diversification process of Cichlidogyrus species parasitizing West African cichlids.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2018
                07 December 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Research Group Zoology: Biodiversity, & Toxicology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University Agoralaan gebouw D 3590 Diepenbeek Belgium
                [2 ] Royal Museum for Central Africa Leuvensesteenweg 13 3080 Tervuren Belgium
                [3 ] ISEM, Univ de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD Montpellier France
                [4 ] Laboratory of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Genomics, University of Leuven Charles Deberiotstraat 42 3000 Leuven Belgium
                [5 ] Institut Supérieur Pédagogique Mbanza-Ngungu B.P. 127 Democratic Republic of the Congo
                [6 ] Centre de Recherche en Hydrobiologie Uvira B.P. 73 Democratic Republic of the Congo
                [7 ] Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University Kamenice 735/5 625 00 Brno Czech Republic
                [8 ] Zoology Unit, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki Pohjoinen Rautatiekatu 13 00100 Helsinki Finland
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: michiel.jorissen@ 123456uhasselt.be
                Article
                parasite180080 10.1051/parasite/2018059
                10.1051/parasite/2018059
                6284406
                30526819
                © M.W.P. Jorissen et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 49, Pages: 21
                Categories
                Research Article

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