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      Interleukin-6 Correlates with Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: The estimation of coronary risk based on consideration of classical risk factors is insufficient in young patients with myocardial infarction who have low expressions of classical risk factors. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) and markers of vascular inflammation may be more appropriate for risk estimation. The relations among ED and inflammation markers in such patients have not yet been explored. Patients and Methods: Twenty-one patients (on average 44 years old) in the stable phase after myocardial infarction, with low expressions of risk factors, were included in the study. The control group consisted of 25 healthy age-matched males. ED was estimated by ultrasound measurement of the endothelium-dependent dilatation of the brachial artery. The following inflammation markers were measured: hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), ICAM-1, VCAM-1, selectin-P and selectin-E. Results: Patients had a significantly reduced level of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (5.6 ± 3.5 vs. 8.8 ± 6.5%, p < 0.05), and an increased level of IL-6 (3.2 [1.5–8.4] vs. 1.4 [0.9–2.3] ng/ml; p < 0.01). All other inflammation markers were comparable to controls. We found a significant negative correlation between ED and the levels of IL-6 (r = –0.54, p = 0.012). Conclusion: It appears that IL-6 is the most valuable circulating marker of ED, and consequently a useful marker of coronary risk.

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          Simple scoring scheme for calculating the risk of acute coronary events based on the 10-year follow-up of the prospective cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) study.

          The absolute risk of an acute coronary event depends on the totality of risk factors exhibited by an individual, the so-called global risk profile. Although several scoring schemes have been suggested to calculate this profile, many omit information on important variables such as family history of coronary heart disease or LDL cholesterol. Based on 325 acute coronary events occurring within 10 years of follow-up among 5389 men 35 to 65 years of age at recruitment into the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) study, we developed a Cox proportional hazards model using the following 8 independent risk variables, ranked in order of importance: age, LDL cholesterol, smoking, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, family history of premature myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, and triglycerides. We then derived a simple point scoring system based on the beta-coefficients of this model. The accuracy of this point scoring scheme was comparable to coronary event prediction when the continuous variables themselves were used. The scoring system accurately predicted observed coronary events with an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve of 82.4% compared with 82.9% for the Cox model with continuous variables. Our scoring system is a simple and accurate way of predicting global risk of myocardial infarction in clinical practice and will therefore allow more accurate targeting of preventive therapy.
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            Prognostic value of coronary vascular endothelial dysfunction.

            Whether patients at increased risk can be identified from a relatively low-risk population by coronary vascular function testing remains unknown. We investigated the relationship between coronary endothelial function and the occurrence of acute unpredictable cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unstable angina) in patients with and without coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). We measured the change in coronary vascular resistance (DeltaCVR) and epicardial diameter with intracoronary acetylcholine (ACh, 15 micro g/min) to test endothelium-dependent function and sodium nitroprusside (20 micro g/min) and adenosine (2.2 mg/min) to test endothelium-independent vascular function in 308 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization (132 with and 176 without CAD). Patients underwent clinical follow-up for a mean of 46+/-3 months. Acute vascular events occurred in 35 patients. After multivariate analysis that included CAD and conventional risk factors for atherosclerosis, DeltaCVR with ACh (P=0.02) and epicardial constriction with ACh (P=0.003), together with increasing age, CAD, and body mass index, were independent predictors of adverse events. Thus, patients in the tertile with the best microvascular responses with ACh and those with epicardial dilation with ACh had improved survival by Kaplan-Meier analyses in the total population, as did those in the subset without CAD. Similar improvement in survival was also observed when all adverse events, including revascularization, were considered. Endothelium-independent responses were not predictive of outcome. Epicardial and microvascular coronary endothelial dysfunction independently predict acute cardiovascular events in patients with and without CAD, providing both functional and prognostic information that complements angiographic and risk factor assessment.
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              Non-invasive measurement of human endothelium dependent arterial responses: accuracy and reproducibility.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                February 2007
                18 July 2006
                : 107
                : 2
                : 111-116
                Affiliations
                Department of Vascular Diseases, University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
                Article
                94588 Cardiology 2007;107:111–116
                10.1159/000094588
                16864964
                b0902290-d091-4096-b5fb-f0dae213c013
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 21 December 2005
                : 15 May 2006
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 21, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Interleukin-6,Inflammation markers,Myocardial infarction,Endothelial dysfunction

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