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      Recent Progress of Miniature MEMS Pressure Sensors

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          Miniature Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) pressure sensors possess various merits, such as low power consumption, being lightweight, having a small volume, accurate measurement in a space-limited region, low cost, little influence on the objects being detected. Accurate blood pressure has been frequently required for medical diagnosis. Miniature pressure sensors could directly measure the blood pressure and fluctuation in blood vessels with an inner diameter from 200 to 1000 μm. Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases usually resulting from abnormal intraocular pressure. The implantable pressure sensor for real-time inspection would keep the disease from worsening; meanwhile, these small devices could alleviate the discomfort of patients. In addition to medical applications, miniature pressure sensors have also been used in the aerospace, industrial, and consumer electronics fields. To clearly illustrate the “miniature size”, this paper focuses on miniature pressure sensors with an overall size of less than 2 mm × 2 mm or a pressure sensitive diaphragm area of less than 1 mm × 1 mm. In this paper, firstly, the working principles of several types of pressure sensors are briefly introduced. Secondly, the miniaturization with the development of the semiconductor processing technology is discussed. Thirdly, the sizes, performances, manufacturing processes, structures, and materials of small pressure sensors used in the different fields are explained in detail, especially in the medical field. Fourthly, problems encountered in the miniaturization of miniature pressure sensors are analyzed and possible solutions proposed. Finally, the probable development directions of miniature pressure sensors in the future are discussed.

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          Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene.

          We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.
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            The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020.

            To estimate the number of people with open angle (OAG) and angle closure glaucoma (ACG) in 2010 and 2020. A review of published data with use of prevalence models. Data from population based studies of age specific prevalence of OAG and ACG that satisfied standard definitions were used to construct prevalence models for OAG and ACG by age, sex, and ethnicity, weighting data proportional to sample size of each study. Models were combined with UN world population projections for 2010 and 2020 to derive the estimated number with glaucoma. There will be 60.5 million people with OAG and ACG in 2010, increasing to 79.6 million by 2020, and of these, 74% will have OAG. Women will comprise 55% of OAG, 70% of ACG, and 59% of all glaucoma in 2010. Asians will represent 47% of those with glaucoma and 87% of those with ACG. Bilateral blindness will be present in 4.5 million people with OAG and 3.9 million people with ACG in 2010, rising to 5.9 and 5.3 million people in 2020, respectively. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, disproportionately affecting women and Asians.
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              Silicon as a mechanical material

               K.E. Petersen (1982)

                Author and article information

                Micromachines (Basel)
                Micromachines (Basel)
                01 January 2020
                January 2020
                : 11
                : 1
                [1 ]Engineering Research Center for Semiconductor Integrated Technology, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China; pssong@ (P.S.); mazhe@ (Z.M.); majing@ (J.M.); yangliangliang@ (L.Y.); weijt@ (J.W.); ymzhao@ (Y.Z.); Zhangml@ (M.Z.); fhyang@ (F.Y.)
                [2 ]The School of microelectronics & Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
                [3 ]The School of Electronic, Electrical and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
                [4 ]Beijing Engineering Research Center of Semiconductor Micro-Nano Integrated Technology, Beijing 100083, China
                [5 ]Beijing Academy of Quantum Information Science, Beijing 100193, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: xdwang@ ; Tel.: +86-010-8230-5403
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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