+1 Recommend
1 collections

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on the design and development of drugs, as well as the clinical outcomes, patient safety, and programs targeted at the effective and safe use of medicines. Sign up for email alerts here.

      88,007 Monthly downloads/views I 4.319 Impact Factor I 6.6 CiteScore I 1.12 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) I 0.784 Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR)


      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Drug-loaded erythrocytes: on the road toward marketing approval


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Erythrocyte drug encapsulation is one of the most promising therapeutic alternative approaches for the administration of toxic or rapidly cleared drugs. Drug-loaded erythrocytes can operate through one of the three main mechanisms of action: extension of circulation half-life (bioreactor), slow drug release, or specific organ targeting. Although the clinical development of erythrocyte carriers is confronted with regulatory and development process challenges, industrial development is expanding. The manufacture of this type of product can be either centralized or bedside based, and different procedures are employed for the encapsulation of therapeutic agents. The major challenges for successful industrialization include production scalability, process validation, and quality control of the released therapeutic agents. Advantages and drawbacks of the different manufacturing processes as well as success key points of clinical development are discussed. Several entrapment technologies based on osmotic methods have been industrialized. Companies have already achieved many of the critical clinical stages, thus providing the opportunity in the future to cover a wide range of diseases for which effective therapies are not currently available.

          Most cited references84

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Electroporation of cell membranes.

          T.Y. Tsong (1991)
          Electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of duration in microseconds to milliseconds cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of cell membranes, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA. A generally accepted term describing this phenomenon is "electroporation." Other effects of a high-intensity electric field on cell membranes include membrane fusions, bleb formation, cell lysis... etc. Electroporation and its related phenomena reflect the basic bioelectrochemistry of cell membranes and are thus important for the study of membrane structure and function. These phenomena also occur in such events as electric injury, electrocution, and cardiac procedures involving electric shocks. Electroporation has found applications in: (a) introduction of plasmids or foreign DNA into living cells for gene transfections, (b) fusion of cells to prepare heterokaryons, hybridoma, hybrid embryos... etc., (c) insertion of proteins into cell membranes, (d) improving drug delivery and hence effectiveness in chemotherapy of cancerous cells, (e) constructing animal model by fusing human cells with animal tissues, (f) activation of membrane transporters and enzymes, and (g) alteration of genetic expression in living cells. A brief review of mechanistic studies of electroporation is given.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Drug delivery by red blood cells: vascular carriers designed by mother nature.

            Vascular delivery of several classes of therapeutic agents may benefit from carriage by red blood cells (RBC), for example, drugs that require delivery into phagocytic cells and those that must act within the vascular lumen. The fact that several protocols of infusion of RBC-encapsulated drugs are now being explored in patients illustrates a high biomedical importance for the field. AREAS COVERED BY THIS REVIEW: Two strategies for RBC drug delivery are discussed: encapsulation into isolated RBC ex vivo followed by infusion in compatible recipients and coupling therapeutics to the surface of RBC. Studies of pharmacokinetics and effects in animal models and in human studies of diverse therapeutic enzymes, antibiotics and other drugs encapsulated in RBC are described and critically analyzed. Coupling to RBC surface of compounds regulating immune response and complement, affinity ligands, polyethylene glycol alleviating immune response to donor RBC and fibrinolytic plasminogen activators are described. Also described is a new, translation-prone approach for RBC drug delivery by injection of therapeutics conjugated with fragments of antibodies providing safe anchoring of cargoes to circulating RBC, without need for ex vivo modification and infusion of RBC. Readers will gain historical perspective, current status, challenges and perspectives of medical applications of RBC for drug delivery. RBC represent naturally designed carriers for intravascular drug delivery, characterized by unique longevity in the bloodstream, biocompatibility and safe physiological mechanisms for metabolism. New approaches for encapsulating drugs into RBC and coupling to RBC surface provide promising avenues for safe and widely useful improvement of drug delivery in the vascular system.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Cell-based drug delivery.

              Drug delivery has been greatly improved over the years by means of chemical and physical agents that increase bioavailability, improve pharmacokinetic and reduce toxicities. At the same time, cell based delivery systems have also been developed. These possesses a number of advantages including prolonged delivery times, targeting of drugs to specialized cell compartments and biocompatibility. Here we'll focus on erythrocyte-based drug delivery. These systems are especially efficient in releasing drugs in circulations for weeks, have a large capacity, can be easily processed and could accommodate traditional and biologic drugs. These carriers have also been used for delivering antigens and/or contrasting agents. Carrier erythrocytes have been evaluated in thousands of drug administration in humans proving safety and efficacy of the treatments. Erythrocyte-based delivery of new and conventional drugs is thus experiencing increasing interests in drug delivery and in managing complex pathologies especially when side effects could become serious issues.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                11 February 2016
                : 10
                : 665-676
                [1 ]ERYTECH Pharma, Lyon, France
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
                [3 ]Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute, St George’s University of London, London, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Vanessa Bourgeaux, ERYTECH Pharma, 60 Avenue Rockefeller, Bâtiment Adénine, 69008 Lyon, France, Tel +33 478 781 572, Fax +33 478 789 309, Email vbourgeaux@ 123456erytech.com
                © 2016 Bourgeaux et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.


                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                red blood cell,encapsulation method,drug carrier,industrial development,clinical use


                Comment on this article