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      European Hernia Society guidelines on the treatment of inguinal hernia in adult patients

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          The European Hernia Society (EHS) is proud to present the EHS Guidelines for the Treatment of Inguinal Hernia in Adult Patients. The Guidelines contain recommendations for the treatment of inguinal hernia from diagnosis till aftercare. They have been developed by a Working Group consisting of expert surgeons with representatives of 14 country members of the EHS. They are evidence-based and, when necessary, a consensus was reached among all members. The Guidelines have been reviewed by a Steering Committee. Before finalisation, feedback from different national hernia societies was obtained. The Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument was used by the Cochrane Association to validate the Guidelines. The Guidelines can be used to adjust local protocols, for training purposes and quality control. They will be revised in 2012 in order to keep them updated. In between revisions, it is the intention of the Working Group to provide every year, during the EHS annual congress, a short update of new high-level evidence (randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and meta-analyses). Developing guidelines leads to questions that remain to be answered by specific research. Therefore, we provide recommendations for further research that can be performed to raise the level of evidence concerning certain aspects of inguinal hernia treatment. In addition, a short summary, specifically for the general practitioner, is given. In order to increase the practical use of the Guidelines by consultants and residents, more details on the most important surgical techniques, local infiltration anaesthesia and a patient information sheet is provided. The most important challenge now will be the implementation of the Guidelines in daily surgical practice. This remains an important task for the EHS. The establishment of an EHS school for teaching inguinal hernia repair surgical techniques, including tips and tricks from experts to overcome the learning curve (especially in endoscopic repair), will be the next step. Working together on this project was a great learning experience, and it was worthwhile and fun. Cultural differences between members were easily overcome by educating each other, respecting different views and always coming back to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The members of the Working Group would like to thank the EHS board for their support and especially Ethicon for sponsoring the many meetings that were needed to finalise such an ambitious project.

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          Is volume related to outcome in health care? A systematic review and methodologic critique of the literature.

          To systematically review the methodologic rigor of the research on volume and outcomes and to summarize the magnitude and significance of the association between them. The authors searched MEDLINE from January 1980 to December 2000 for English-language, population-based studies examining the independent relationship between hospital or physician volume and clinical outcomes. Bibliographies were reviewed to identify other articles of interest, and experts were contacted about missing or unpublished studies. Of 272 studies reviewed, 135 met inclusion criteria and covered 27 procedures and clinical conditions. Two investigators independently reviewed each article, using a standard form to abstract information on key study characteristics and results. The methodologic rigor of the primary studies varied. Few studies used clinical data for risk adjustment or examined effects of hospital and physician volume simultaneously. Overall, 71% of all studies of hospital volume and 69% of studies of physician volume reported statistically significant associations between higher volume and better outcomes. The strongest associations were found for AIDS treatment and for surgery on pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, abdominal aortic aneurysms, and pediatric cardiac problems (a median of 3.3 to 13 excess deaths per 100 cases were attributed to low volume). Although statistically significant, the volume-outcome relationship for coronary artery bypass surgery, coronary angioplasty, carotid endarterectomy, other cancer surgery, and orthopedic procedures was of much smaller magnitude. Hospital volume-outcome studies that performed risk adjustment by using clinical data were less likely to report significant associations than were studies that adjusted for risk by using administrative data. High volume is associated with better outcomes across a wide range of procedures and conditions, but the magnitude of the association varies greatly. The clinical and policy significance of these findings is complicated by the methodologic shortcomings of many studies. Differences in case mix and processes of care between high- and low-volume providers may explain part of the observed relationship between volume and outcome.
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              Open mesh versus laparoscopic mesh repair of inguinal hernia.

               James Gibbs,  O. Jonasson,   (2004)
              Repair of inguinal hernias in men is a common surgical procedure, but the most effective surgical technique is unknown. We randomly assigned men with inguinal hernias at 14 Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers to either open mesh or laparoscopic mesh repair. The primary outcome was recurrence of hernias at two years. Secondary outcomes included complications and patient-centered outcomes. Of the 2164 patients who were randomly assigned to one of the two procedures, 1983 underwent an operation; two-year follow-up was completed in 1696 (85.5 percent). Recurrences were more common in the laparoscopic group (87 of 862 patients [10.1 percent]) than in the open group (41 of 834 patients [4.9 percent]; odds ratio, 2.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.2). The rate of complications was higher in the laparoscopic-surgery group than in the open-surgery group (39.0 percent vs. 33.4 percent; adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.6). The laparoscopic-surgery group had less pain initially than the open-surgery group on the day of surgery (difference in mean score on a visual-analogue scale, 10.2 mm; 95 percent confidence interval, 4.8 to 15.6) and at two weeks (6.1 mm; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 10.5) and returned to normal activities one day earlier (adjusted hazard ratio for a shorter time to return to normal activities, 1.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.3). In prespecified analyses, there was a significant interaction between the surgical approach (open or laparoscopic) and the type of hernia (primary or recurrent) (P=0.012). Recurrence was significantly more common after laparoscopic repair than after open repair of primary hernias (10.1 percent vs. 4.0 percent), but rates of recurrence after repair of recurrent hernias were similar in the two groups (10.0 percent and 14.1 percent, respectively). The open technique is superior to the laparoscopic technique for mesh repair of primary hernias. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society

                Author and article information

                mpsimons@telfort.nl , m.p.simons@olvg.nl
                Springer-Verlag (Paris )
                28 July 2009
                August 2009
                : 13
                : 4
                : 343-403
                [1 ]Department of Surgery, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis Hospital, Postbus 95500, 1090 HM Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [4 ]University of Descartes, Paris, France
                [5 ]University of Insubria, Milan, Italy
                [6 ]Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
                [7 ]Westfries Gasthuis, Hoorn, The Netherlands
                [8 ]Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria
                [9 ]Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
                [10 ]Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, England
                [11 ]Klinik Im Park, Zurich, Switzerland
                [12 ]University of Sevilla, Seville, Spain
                [13 ]Östersund Hospital, Ostersund, Sweden
                [14 ]Helsingborg Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden
                [15 ]Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
                [16 ]Medical Faculty, University of Pécs, Pecs, Hungary
                [17 ]University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium
                © The Author(s) 2009
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                © Springer-Verlag 2009

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology


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