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      Real-world effectiveness of umeclidinium/vilanterol versus fluticasone propionate/salmeterol as initial maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a retrospective cohort study

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          Background and objective

          Retrospective claims data in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) initiating maintenance therapy with inhaled fixed-dose combinations of long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β 2-agonist (LAMA/LABA) versus inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/LABA have not been reported.


          Retrospective observational study in a COPD-diagnosed population of commercial and Medicare Advantage with Part D (MAPD) enrollees aged ≥40 years from a US health insurer database. Patients initiated umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI [62.5/25 µg]) or fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL [250/50 µg]) between April 1, 2014 and August 31, 2016 (index date) and had 12 months continuous enrollment pre- and post-index. Exclusion criteria included an asthma diagnosis in the pre-index period/index date; ICS-, LABA-, or LAMA-containing therapy during the pre-index period; or pharmacy fills for both UMEC/VI and FP/SAL, multiple-inhaler triple therapy, a non-index therapy, or COPD exacerbation on the index date. Adherence (proportion of days covered [PDC] ≥80%) was modeled using weighted logistic regression following inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Weighted Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression following IPTW were performed for incidence of COPD exacerbation and escalation to multiple-inhaler triple therapy.


          The study population included 5306 patients (1386 initiating UMEC/VI and 3920 initiating FP/SAL). Adjusted odds of adherence were 2.00 times greater among UMEC/VI than FP/SAL initiators (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62─2.46; P<0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for first exacerbation was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74–1.01; P=0.067) among UMEC/VI versus FP/SAL initiators. UMEC/VI initiators had 35% lower adjusted risk of escalation to multiple-inhaler triple therapy (HR 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47–0.89; P=0.008) versus FP/SAL. On-treatment, UMEC/VI initiators had an adjusted 30% reduced risk of a first moderate/severe COPD exacerbation (HR 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54–0.90; P=0.006).


          Patients with COPD initiating UMEC/VI had higher adherence and longer time before escalation to multiple-inhaler triple therapy than FP/SAL initiators.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Efficacy and safety of once-daily QVA149 compared with twice-daily salmeterol-fluticasone in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ILLUMINATE): a randomised, double-blind, parallel group study.

          QVA149 is an inhaled fixed-dose combination therapy under development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It combines indacaterol (a longacting β2-agonist) with glycopyrronium (a longacting muscarinic antagonist) as a dual bronchodilator. We aimed to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of QVA149 versus salmeterol-fluticasone (SFC) over 26 weeks in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. In this multicentre double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study, 523 patients (age 40 years or older, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stages II-III, without exacerbations in the previous year) were randomly assigned (1:1; via automated, interactive response technology and stratified for smoking status) to once-daily QVA149 110/50 μg or twice-daily SFC 50/500 μg for 26 weeks. Efficacy was assessed in the full analysis set (randomised patients who received at least one dose of study drug); safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate the superiority of QVA149 compared with SFC for the standardised area under the curve from 0 to 12 h post dose for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 AUC0-12h) after 26 weeks of treatment. This trial was registered at, NCT01315249. Between March 25, 2011, and March 12, 2012, 259 patients were randomly assigned to receive QVA149 and 264 to receive SFC. At week 26, FEV1 AUC0-12h was significantly higher with QVA149 than with SFC (treatment difference 0·138 L; 95% CI 0·100-0·176; p<0·0001). Overall incidence of adverse events (including COPD exacerbations) was 55·4% (143 of 258) for the QVA149 group and 60·2% (159 of 264) for the SFC group. Incidence of serious adverse events was similar between treatment groups (QVA149, 13 of 258 [5·0%]; SFC 14 of 264 [5·3%]); COPD worsening was the most frequent serious adverse event (one of 13 [0·4%] and three of 14 [1·1%], respectively). Once-daily QVA149 provides significant, sustained, and clinically meaningful improvements in lung function versus twice-daily SFC, with significant symptomatic benefit. These results indicate the potential of dual bronchodilation as a treatment option for non-exacerbating symptomatic COPD patients. Novartis Pharma AG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Medication adherence issues in patients treated for COPD

            Although medical treatment of COPD has advanced, nonadherence to medication regimens poses a significant barrier to optimal management. Underuse, overuse, and improper use continue to be the most common causes of poor adherence to therapy. An average of 40%–60% of patients with COPD adheres to the prescribed regimen and only 1 out of 10 patients with a metered dose inhaler performs all essential steps correctly. Adherence to therapy is multifactorial and involves both the patient and the primary care provider. The effect of patient instruction on inhaler adherence and rescue medication utilization in patients with COPD does not seem to parallel the good results reported in patients with asthma. While use of a combined inhaler may facilitate adherence to medications and improve efficacy, pharmacoeconomic factors may influence patient’s selection of both the device and the regimen. Patient’s health beliefs, experiences, and behaviors play a significant role in adherence to pharmacological therapy. This manuscript reviews important aspects associated with medication adherence in patients with COPD and identifies some predictors of poor adherence.
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              Triple therapy with budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate with co-suspension delivery technology versus dual therapies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (KRONOS): a double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3 randomised controlled trial


                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                01 August 2019
                : 14
                : 1721-1737
                [1 ]US Value Evidence and Outcomes, GSK , Durham, NC, USA
                [2 ]Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Optum , Eden Prairie, MN, USA
                [3 ]US Medical Affairs, GSK , Durham, NC, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chad MoretzUS Value Evidence and Outcomes, GSK , 5 Moore Drive, PO Box 13398, RTP, Durham, NC27709-3398, USATel +1 828 442 6294 Email chad.x.moretz@
                © 2019 Moretz et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 31, Pages: 17
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, lama/laba, ics/laba, real-world effectiveness, retrospective cohort


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