We examined the biological effects of porcine enamel matrix derivative (EMD; Emdogain) on the formation of reparative dentine and dentine bridges in rat molars after pulp amputation. The pulp chambers of upper molars of Wistar rats were perforated and the amputated pulp surfaces were directly capped with either EMD or its carrier propylene glycol alginate (PGA) as control. The cavities were then restored with glass-ionomer cement. On post-amputation days 4-30, the dissected maxillae were examined by light and electron microscopy. In PGA-capped pulp, reparative dentine had been formed over the dentine walls under the prepared cavity on day 7 post-amputation and its thickness extended until day 30. On day 30, as well as reparative dentine formation, diffuse calcification had occurred beneath the amputated wound surfaces. Dentine bridge formation under the amputated coronal pulp surface was observed in 18.2% of amputated pulp on day 30. In EMD-capped pulp, reparative dentine had already been formed by odontoblast-like cells over the dentine walls, already on day 4 post-amputation, and its thickness extended until day 30. The Ca and P weight % and Ca/P ratio of reparative dentine matrix were similar to those of pre-existing dentine matrix, and these values were not different between PGA and EMD-capped pulp. Dentine bridge formation was observed in 27.3% of EMD-capped pulp on day 30. Our results suggest that EMD enhances the formation of both reparative dentine and dentine bridges during wound healing of amputated rat molar pulp.