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      Repeating Earthquakes

      1 , 2

      Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Repeating earthquakes, or repeaters, are identical in location and geometry but occur at different times. They appear to represent recurring seismic energy release from distinct structures such as slip on a fault patch. Repeaters are most commonly found on creeping plate boundary faults, where seismic patches are loaded by surrounding slow slip, and they can be used to track fault creep at depth. Their hosting environments also include volcanoes, subducted slabs, mining-induced fault structures, glaciers, and landslides. While true repeaters should have identical seismic waveforms, small differences in their seismograms can be used to examine subtle changes in source properties or in material properties of the rocks through which the waves propagate. Source studies have documented the presence of smaller slip patches within the rupture areas of larger repeaters, illuminated earthquake triggering mechanisms, and revealed systematic changes in rupture characteristics as a function of loading rate. ▪ Repeating earthquakes are observed in diverse tectonic and nontectonic settings. ▪ Their occurrence patterns provide quantitative information about fault creep, earthquake cycle dynamics, triggering, and predictability. ▪ Their seismic waveform characteristics provide important insights on earthquake source variability and temporal Earth structure changes.

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          Most cited references 139

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            Fault behavior and characteristic earthquakes: Examples from the Wasatch and San Andreas Fault Zones

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              Propagation of slow slip leading up to the 2011 M(w) 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

              Many large earthquakes are preceded by one or more foreshocks, but it is unclear how these foreshocks relate to the nucleation process of the mainshock. On the basis of an earthquake catalog created using a waveform correlation technique, we identified two distinct sequences of foreshocks migrating at rates of 2 to 10 kilometers per day along the trench axis toward the epicenter of the 2011 moment magnitude (M(w)) 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. The time history of quasi-static slip along the plate interface, based on small repeating earthquakes that were part of the migrating seismicity, suggests that two sequences involved slow-slip transients propagating toward the initial rupture point. The second sequence, which involved large slip rates, may have caused substantial stress loading, prompting the unstable dynamic rupture of the mainshock.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences
                Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.
                Annual Reviews
                0084-6597
                1545-4495
                May 30 2019
                May 30 2019
                : 47
                : 1
                : 305-332
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Graduate School of Science and International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan;
                [2 ]Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA;
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-earth-053018-060119
                © 2019

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