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      Th1 and Th2 Serum Cytokine Profiles Characterize Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (Th1) and Graves’ Disease (Th2)

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          Abstract

          Objectives: The aim of this study was to document the pattern of immune response, assessed by the measurement of both Th1 and Th2 serum cytokines, in patients suffering from autoimmune thyroid disease and toxic nodular goiter. Methods: Both Th1 and Th2 serum cytokine levels were assayed in patients suffering from Graves’ disease (GD, n = 25), Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT, n = 21), and toxic nodular goiter (TNG, n = 7) and compared with corresponding levels of 25 healthy controls. Serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-1β, INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-15, IL-10, IL-18, IL-4 and IL-5 were assayed in fasting serum samples. Results: It was found that patients with HT had higher IL-2 serum levels (12.16 ± 0.66 pg/ml) compared to patients with TNG (9.25 ± 0.84 pg/ml), GD (7.86 ± 0.30 pg/ml) and controls (7.36 ± 0.45 pg/ml; p = 0.0001), higher INF-γ levels (7.60 ± 0.33 pg/ml) compared to patients with TNG (5.77 ± 0.55 pg/ml), GD (5.74 ± 0.24 pg/ml) and controls (5.09 ± 0.27 pg/ml; p = 0.0009), higher IL-12 levels (3.57 ± 0.19 pg/ml) compared to patients with TNG (2.57 ± 0.21 pg/ml), GD (2.48 ± 0.13 pg/ml) and controls (2.59 ± 0.23 pg/ml; p = 0.004), and higher IL-18 levels (27.52 ± 1.75 pg/ml) compared to patients with TNG (18.71 ± 2.24 pg/ml), GD (15.44 ± 1.39 pg/ml) and controls (15.16 ± 1.62 pg/ml; p = 0.0002). In contrast, patients with GD had higher serum levels of IL-4 (4.11 ± 0.33 pg/ml) compared to patients with HT (3.0 ± 0.16; p = 0.02) and higher IL-5 levels (4.22 ± 0.30 pg/ml) compared to patients with TNG (3.21 ± 0.58 pg/ml), HT (2.75 ± 0.16 pg/ml) and controls (2.0 ± 0.19 pg/ml; p = 0.0001). Patients had lower IL-1β serum levels (TNG 2.45 ± 0.20, HT 2.52 ± 0.14, GD 2.68 ± 0.12 pg/ml) compared to controls (3.6 ± 0.20 pg/ml; p = 0.008). Conclusions: The above findings suggest that a Th1 pattern of immune response characteristic of cellular immunity is dominant in HT, whereas the predominance of Th2 cytokines in GD indicates a humoral pattern of immune reaction.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.

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            Regulatory T Cells

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              Innate immunity and autoimmunity: from self-protection to self-destruction.

              Innate immune responses provide the body with its first line of defense against infections. Signals generated by a subset of lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells, during the early host response might have an additional role in determining the nature of downstream adaptive immune responses. Here, Fu-Dong Shi, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren and Nora Sarvetnick discuss the role of cellular and soluble components of innate immunity in the development of autoimmune diseases. Some putative pathways leading from innate immunity to autoimmunity are proposed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2004
                July 2004
                09 July 2004
                : 11
                : 4
                : 209-213
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Endocrinology, Red Cross Hospital, and bImmunology Center, Saint Savas Hospital, Athens, Greece
                Article
                78438 Neuroimmunomodulation 2004;11:209–213
                10.1159/000078438
                15249726
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 35, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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