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      Water quality trend assessment in Jakarta: A rapidly growing Asian megacity

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          Abstract

          Megacities are facing serious water pollution problems due to urbanization, rapid population growth and economic development. Water is an essential resource for human activities and socio-economic development and water quality in urban settings has important implications for human and environmental health. Urbanization and lack of sewerage has left the water in Jakarta, Indonesia in a heavily polluted condition. Rigorous assessment of urban water quality is necessary to understand the factors controlling water quality conditions. We use trend analysis to assess the current water quality conditions in Jakarta, focusing on Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS). In most monitoring stations analyzed, BOD and TSS concentrations have decreased over time, but from large starting concentrations. DO in most monitoring stations has increased. Although Jakarta’s water quality has shown some improvement, it remains heavily impaired. The average value of BOD is low in upper stream stations compared to middle and lower stream stations. BOD and TSS trends of some water quality stations in middle and lower streams show increasing trends. Cluster analysis results suggest three groups for BOD and TSS, and four groups for DO. Understanding water quality conditions and factors that control water quality suggest strategies for improving water quality given current trends in climate, population growth and urban development. Results from this study suggest research directions and management strategies to address water quality challenges.

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          Most cited references 46

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                11 July 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an, China
                [2 ] School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi'an, China
                [3 ] Research Centre for Limnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jakarta, Indonesia
                [4 ] Faculty of Science and Technology, Pokhara University, Pokhara, Nepal
                [5 ] Environment & Resource Management Consultant (P) Ltd., New Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal
                [6 ] School of Engineering, University of California–Merced, Merced, CA, United States of America
                University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, CHINA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: RKR is affiliated with Environment & Resource Management Consultant (P) Ltd. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

                Article
                PONE-D-19-05869
                10.1371/journal.pone.0219009
                6623954
                31295261
                © 2019 Luo et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 2, Pages: 17
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, CHD
                Award ID: 300102299302
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Excellent projects for science and technology activities of overseas staff in Shaanxi Province
                Award ID: 2018038
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Special funds of education and teaching reform for the Central Universities of China
                Award ID: 310629172112
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: National Key R&D Program of China
                Award ID: 2018YFGH000187
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: International Collaborative Research of Disaster Prevention Research Institute of Kyoto University
                Award ID: 2019W-02
                Award Recipient :
                Financial support was provided by National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFE0103800 and 2018YFGH000187), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, CHD (300102299302), International Collaborative Research of Disaster Prevention Research Institute of Kyoto University (2019W-02), One Hundred Talent Plan of Shaanxi Province, Excellent projects for science and technology activities of overseas staff in Shaanxi Province (2018038), and Special funds of education and teaching reform for the Central Universities of China (310629172112). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. We also appreciate the reviewers for providing valuable comments.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Water Quality
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Pollution
                Water Pollution
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Terrestrial Environments
                Urban Environments
                Earth Sciences
                Hydrology
                Surface Water
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Natural Resources
                Water Resources
                Earth Sciences
                Hydrology
                Flooding
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Population Biology
                Population Metrics
                Population Growth
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Urban Ecology
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Urban Ecology
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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