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      ACTIVE CONTROL OF THE DYNAMICS OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES

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      Annual Review of Physical Chemistry

      Annual Reviews

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          Observation of bose-einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor.

          A Bose-Einstein condensate was produced in a vapor of rubidium-87 atoms that was confined by magnetic fields and evaporatively cooled. The condensate fraction first appeared near a temperature of 170 nanokelvin and a number density of 2.5 x 10(12) per cubic centimeter and could be preserved for more than 15 seconds. Three primary signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation were seen. (i) On top of a broad thermal velocity distribution, a narrow peak appeared that was centered at zero velocity. (ii) The fraction of the atoms that were in this low-velocity peak increased abruptly as the sample temperature was lowered. (iii) The peak exhibited a nonthermal, anisotropic velocity distribution expected of the minimum-energy quantum state of the magnetic trap in contrast to the isotropic, thermal velocity distribution observed in the broad uncondensed fraction.
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            On the generators of quantum dynamical semigroups

             G Lindblad (1976)
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              Completely positive dynamical semigroups of N-level systems

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
                Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
                Annual Reviews
                0066-426X
                1545-1593
                October 1997
                October 1997
                : 48
                : 1
                : 601-641
                10.1146/annurev.physchem.48.1.601
                © 1997

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