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      Promoter elements and transcription factors involved in differentiation-dependent human chorionic gonadotrophin-alpha messenger ribonucleic acid expression of term villous trophoblasts.


      Activating Transcription Factor 1, Binding Sites, physiology, Cell Differentiation, Cells, Cultured, Chorionic Villi, metabolism, Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, DNA, DNA-Binding Proteins, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit, genetics, Humans, Isoenzymes, Phosphorylation, Pregnancy, Promoter Regions, Genetic, RNA, Messenger, Tissue Distribution, Transcription Factors, Transcription, Genetic, Trophoblasts

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          Differentiation of primary villous cytotrophoblasts into syncytia is associated with increasing production of alpha and beta human CG subunits, which is predominantly governed at the level of messenger RNA expression. Here, we present a detailed study on the mechanisms involved in the differentiation-dependent regulation of the trophoblast-specific CGalpha gene promoter. Site-directed mutations in each of the five DNA-elements of the composite enhancer were performed to investigate the contribution of the individual regulatory sequences to the overall transcriptional activity of the promoter at two different stages of trophoblast in vitro differentiation. We show that deletion of one cyclic AMP response element (CRE) did not affect CGalpha promoter activity in cytotrophoblasts; however, it reduced transcription by 33% in differentiating cultures. Removal of both CREs almost abolished transcription at early and later stages of in vitro differentiation. Upon mutation the enhancer elements alphaACT, JRE, and CCAAT significantly decreased luciferase reporter transcription; however their contribution to the total promoter activity did not change during in vitro differentiation. Contrary to that, mutated TSE diminished promoter activity by 19% during 12 and 48 h of cultivation but reduced luciferase expression by 78% between 48 and 84 h of differentiation. In electrophoretic mobility shift assay, the TSE interacted with activating protein (AP)-2alpha in both primary trophoblasts and choriocarcinoma cells. While CRE-interacting proteins were detectable 12 h after isolation, the TSE-binding complex did not appear before 36 h of in vitro differentiation. During syncytium formation increasing protein expression of activating transcription factor (ATF)-1, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-1, and AP-2alpha was observed on Western blots. Moreover, phosphorylated CREB-1 and ATF-1 accumulated between 24 and 78 h of trophoblast cultivation. By fluorescence immunohistochemistry, we show that CREB-1 was predominantly expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts, whereas ATF-1 and AP-2alpha localized to the syncytium and some cytototrophoblasts as well as to stromal and endothelial cells of the placental villus. Phosphorylated CREB-1/ATF-1 and the coactivator protein CBP were primarily detected in syncytial nuclei, suggesting the presence of functional, cAMP-dependent transcriptional complexes in the differentiated tissue. In agreement to the in vivo situation, phosphorylated CREB-1/ATF-1 were observed in nuclei of the differentiated trophoblast cultures. The activity of the CGalpha promoter as well as CREB-1/ATF-1 phosphorylation increased upon elevation of cAMP levels and overexpression of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A. Additionally, we demonstrate that overproduction of the enzyme enhanced protein expression and binding of AP-2alpha to the TSE. We conclude that differentiation-dependent transcription of the CGalpha gene in villous trophoblasts is mainly governed by increasing expression of AP-2alpha and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of CREB-1 and ATF-1.

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