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      Incidence and Mortality of Various Cancers in Iran and Compare to Other Countries: A Review Article

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Iran in recent years had the rapid development of industrialization and modernity, and changes in the people’s lifestyles and environment, these changes may affect epidemiological patterns of various types of cancers. In this review, incidence and mortality of various cancers (skin, gastric, esophageal, breast, and prostate) in Iran have been reported.

          Methods:

          The related data about Iran and other countries were collected from databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. All included studies were published before Jun 2017.

          Results:

          There is an increment trend of incidence and mortality rate for most cancers in Iran.

          Conclusion:

          The plan for control and prevention of cancers must be a high priority for health policy in Iran as well as it is suggested that earlier screening is need for high-risk population.

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          Most cited references58

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          Cancer incidence and mortality in Iran.

          Cancer is the third main cause of death in Iran. This report was provided for explaining cancer incidence and mortality. The National Cancer Registry reports from 2003 to 2006, population-based cancer registry reports from five provinces in 2006 and National Death Registry reports from 1999 to 2004 have been applied in this report. The age-standardized incidence rate of cancers was 98 and 110 per 100,000 among females and males. The male to female standard ratio was 1.12. The most common cancer among women and men was breast cancer (24) and stomach cancer (15), respectively. The estimated mortality rate for cancer was 41.1 and 65 per 100,000 for females and males in 2004. The current low cancer incidence rates in Iran might be due to lack of national cancer screening programs for prostate, colorectal or breast cancer, a consequence of incomplete registration as well as incomplete diagnosis of cancer patients; it is expected that it will rise dramatically in the future because of anticipated increase in life expectancy and westernized lifestyle. The first priorities for health policy makers should be developing, establishing and implementing national cancer control; or else, the health system could not respond to the demands regarding to diagnosis, treatment and palliation for these patients in the future.
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            Five common cancers in Iran.

            Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, it;s mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers incidence in Iran and to explain incidental differences that may help us to establish early detection programs and investigate population risk factors. A detailed PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar search were made from 2000 to 2009. The basic inclusion criteria were all relevant studies focused on cancer epidemiological data from Iran. Overall age-standard incidence rate per 100 000 population according to primary site is 110.43 in males and 98.23 in females. The five most common cancers (except skin cancer) are stomach, esophagus, colon-rectum, bladder and leukemia in males, and in females are breast, esophagus, stomach, colon-rectum and cervix uteri. The incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers are high in Iran (it is one of the known areas with a high incidence of GI cancers). Breast cancer mainly affects Iranian women about a decade earlier than Western countries and younger cases are affected by an increasing rate of colorectal cancer in Iran, near the Western rates.
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              Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study

              Objective To investigate the association between tea drinking habits in Golestan province, northern Iran, and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Population based case-control study. In addition, patterns of tea drinking and temperature at which tea was drunk were measured among healthy participants in a cohort study. Setting Golestan province, northern Iran, an area with a high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Participants 300 histologically proved cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 571 matched neighbourhood controls in the case-control study and 48 582 participants in the cohort study. Main outcome measure Odds ratio of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma associated with drinking hot tea. Results Nearly all (98%) of the cohort participants drank black tea regularly, with a mean volume consumed of over one litre a day. 39.0% of participants drank their tea at temperatures less than 60°C, 38.9% at 60-64°C, and 22.0% at 65°C or higher. A moderate agreement was found between reported tea drinking temperature and actual temperature measurements (weighted κ 0.49). The results of the case-control study showed that compared with drinking lukewarm or warm tea, drinking hot tea (odds ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.28 to 3.35) or very hot tea (8.16, 3.93 to 16.9) was associated with an increased risk of oesophageal cancer. Likewise, compared with drinking tea four or more minutes after being poured, drinking tea 2-3 minutes after pouring (2.49, 1.62 to 3.83) or less than two minutes after pouring (5.41, 2.63 to 11.1) was associated with a significantly increased risk. A strong agreement was found between responses to the questions on temperature at which tea was drunk and interval from tea being poured to being drunk (weighted κ 0.68). Conclusion Drinking hot tea, a habit common in Golestan province, was strongly associated with a higher risk of oesophageal cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Iran J Public Health
                Iran. J. Public Health
                IJPH
                IJPH
                Iranian Journal of Public Health
                Tehran University of Medical Sciences
                2251-6085
                2251-6093
                March 2018
                : 47
                : 3
                : 309-316
                Affiliations
                [1. ] Dept. of Medical Physics and Radiology, Faculty of Paramedicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
                [2. ] Dept. of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [3. ] Dept. of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding Author: Email: St.Alizadeh@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                ijph-47-309
                5971166
                29845017
                b0e6cf51-66f2-4a1c-9e9e-bb1d1df41002
                Copyright© Iranian Public Health Association & Tehran University of Medical Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 04 August 2017
                : 10 October 2017
                Categories
                Review Article

                Public health
                cancer,incidence,mortality,risk factor,iran
                Public health
                cancer, incidence, mortality, risk factor, iran

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