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      Clinical Features Predicting Mortality Risk in Patients With Viral Pneumonia: The MuLBSTA Score

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          Abstract

          Objective

          The aim of this study was to further clarify clinical characteristics and predict mortality risk among patients with viral pneumonia.

          Methods

          A total of 528 patients with viral pneumonia at RuiJin hospital in Shanghai from May 2015 to May 2019 were recruited. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR was used to detect respiratory viruses. Demographic information, comorbidities, routine laboratory examinations, immunological indexes, etiological detections, radiological images and treatment were collected on admission.

          Results

          76 (14.4%) patients died within 90 days in hospital. A predictive MuLBSTA score was calculated on the basis of a multivariate logistic regression model in order to predict mortality with a weighted score that included multilobular infiltrates (OR = 5.20, 95% CI 1.41–12.52, p = 0.010; 5 points), lymphocyte ≤ 0.8 10 9/L (OR = 4.53, 95% CI 2.55–8.05, p < 0.001; 4 points), bacterial coinfection (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 2.11–6.51, p < 0.001; 4 points), acute-smoker (OR = 3.19, 95% CI 1.34–6.26, p = 0.001; 3 points), quit-smoker (OR = 2.18, 95% CI 0.99–4.82, p = 0.054; 2 points), hypertension (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.55–4.26, p = 0.003; 2 points) and age ≥60 years (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.04–4.39, p = 0.038; 2 points). 12 points was used as a cut-off value for mortality risk stratification. This model showed sensitivity of 0.776, specificity of 0.778 and a better predictive ability than CURB-65 (AUROC = 0.773 vs. 0.717, p < 0.001).

          Conclusion

          Here, we designed an easy-to-use clinically predictive tool for assessing 90-day mortality risk of viral pneumonia. It can accurately stratify hospitalized patients with viral pneumonia into relevant risk categories and could provide guidance to make further clinical decisions.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Clinical findings in 111 cases of influenza A (H7N9) virus infection.

          During the spring of 2013, a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged and spread among humans in China. Data were lacking on the clinical characteristics of the infections caused by this virus. Using medical charts, we collected data on 111 patients with laboratory-confirmed avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) infection through May 10, 2013. Of the 111 patients we studied, 76.6% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), and 27.0% died. The median age was 61 years, and 42.3% were 65 years of age or older; 31.5% were female. A total of 61.3% of the patients had at least one underlying medical condition. Fever and cough were the most common presenting symptoms. On admission, 108 patients (97.3%) had findings consistent with pneumonia. Bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidation were the typical radiologic findings. Lymphocytopenia was observed in 88.3% of patients, and thrombocytopenia in 73.0%. Treatment with antiviral drugs was initiated in 108 patients (97.3%) at a median of 7 days after the onset of illness. The median times from the onset of illness and from the initiation of antiviral therapy to a negative viral test result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay were 11 days (interquartile range, 9 to 16) and 6 days (interquartile range, 4 to 7), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of a coexisting medical condition was the only independent risk factor for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (odds ratio, 3.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 9.70; P=0.02). During the evaluation period, the novel H7N9 virus caused severe illness, including pneumonia and ARDS, with high rates of ICU admission and death. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others.).
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            Incidence and characteristics of viral community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

            In adults, viral causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are poorly characterised. The aims of this study were to characterise the viral aetiology of CAP in adults by using an extensive array of viral diagnostic tests and to compare the characteristics of viral pneumonia with those of pneumococcal pneumonia. Adults admitted to Christchurch Hospital over a 1-year period with CAP were included in the study. Microbiological testing methods included blood and sputum cultures, urinary antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, antibody detection in paired sera and detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal swabs by immunofluorescence, culture and PCR. Of 304 patients with CAP, a viral diagnosis was made in 88 (29%), with rhinoviruses and influenza A being the most common. Two or more pathogens were detected in 49 (16%) patients, 45 of whom had mixed viral and bacterial infections. There were no reliable clinical predictors of viral pneumonia, although several variables were independently associated with some aetiologies. The presence of myalgia was associated with pneumonia caused by any respiratory virus (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.29 to 10.12) and influenza pneumonia (OR 190.72, 95% CI 3.68 to 9891.91). Mixed rhinovirus/pneumococcal infection was associated with severe disease. Virus-associated CAP is common in adults. Polymicrobial infections involving bacterial and viral pathogens are frequent and may be associated with severe pneumonia.
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              Transgenic mice lacking class I major histocompatibility complex- restricted T cells have delayed viral clearance and increased mortality after influenza virus challenge

               L. Zhang,  P Small,  B Bender (1992)
              To investigate the role of CD8+ T lymphocytes in recovery from influenza pneumonia, we used transgenic mice either homozygous (-/-) or heterozygous (+/-) for beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) gene disruption. These mice lack major histocompatibility complex-restricted class I (CD8+) T cells. We found that after challenge with a nonlethal influenza virus, the beta 2-M (-/-) mice had significantly delayed pulmonary viral clearance. Furthermore, after challenge with a more virulent influenza virus, the beta 2-M (-/-) mice had a significantly higher mortality rate than did control mice. Thus, CD8+ T cells are important in recovery from virulent influenza infections, but other host defense mechanisms can clear the respiratory tract of more benign infections.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                03 December 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                2Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                3Research Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                4Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Infectious and Respiratory Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                5Clinical Research Center, Ruijin Hospital North, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                6Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Third People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou , Henan, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: David Ong, Sint Franciscus Gasthuis, Netherlands

                Reviewed by: Christina Tsigalou, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; Cornelis H. Van Werkhoven, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands

                *Correspondence: Min Zhou, doctor_zhou_99@ 123456163.com

                This article was submitted to Infectious Diseases, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2019.02752
                6901688
                Copyright © 2019 Guo, Wei, Zhang, Wu, Li, Zhou and Qu.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Original Research

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