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      The Effects of Novel and Newly Approved Antipsychotics on Serum Prolactin Levels: A Comprehensive Review

      , , ,

      CNS Drugs

      Springer International Publishing

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          Abstract

          Since the 1970s, clinicians have increasingly become more familiar with hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) as a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication, which remains the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Although treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) as a group is, compared with use of the first-generation antipsychotics, associated with lower prolactin (PRL) plasma levels, the detailed effects on plasma PRL levels for each of these compounds in reports often remain incomplete or inaccurate. Moreover, at this moment, no review has been published about the effect of the newly approved antipsychotics asenapine, iloperidone and lurasidone on PRL levels. The objective of this review is to describe PRL physiology; PRL measurement; diagnosis, causes, consequences and mechanisms of HPRL; incidence figures of (new-onset) HPRL with SGAs and newly approved antipsychotics in adolescent and adult patients; and revisit lingering questions regarding this hormone. A literature search, using the MEDLINE database (1966–December 2013), was conducted to identify relevant publications to report on the state of the art of HPRL and to summarize the available evidence with respect to the propensity of the SGAs and the newly approved antipsychotics to elevate PRL levels. Our review shows that although HPRL usually is defined as a sustained level of PRL above the laboratory upper limit of normal, limit values show some degree of variability in clinical reports, making the interpretation and comparison of data across studies difficult. Moreover, many reports do not provide much or any data detailing the measurement of PRL. Although the highest rates of HPRL are consistently reported in association with amisulpride, risperidone and paliperidone, while aripiprazole and quetiapine have the most favorable profile with respect to this outcome, all SGAs can induce PRL elevations, especially at the beginning of treatment, and have the potential to cause new-onset HPRL. Considering the PRL-elevating propensity of the newly approved antipsychotics, evidence seems to indicate these agents have a PRL profile comparable to that of clozapine (asenapine and iloperidone), ziprasidone and olanzapine (lurasidone). PRL elevations with antipsychotic medication generally are dose dependant. However, antipsychotics having a high potential for PRL elevation (amisulpride, risperidone and paliperidone) can have a profound impact on PRL levels even at relatively low doses, while PRL levels with antipsychotics having a minimal effect on PRL, in most cases, can remain unchanged (quetiapine) or reduce (aripiprazole) over all dosages. Although tolerance and decreases in PRL values after long-term administration of PRL-elevating antipsychotics can occur, the elevations, in most cases, remain above the upper limit of normal. PRL profiles of antipsychotics in children and adolescents seem to be the same as in adults. The hyperprolactinemic effects of antipsychotic medication are mostly correlated with their affinity for dopamine D2 receptors at the level of the anterior pituitary lactotrophs (and probably other neurotransmitter mechanisms) and their blood–brain barrier penetrating capability. Even though antipsychotics are the most common cause of pharmacologically induced HPRL, recent research has shown that HPRL can be pre-existing in a substantial portion of antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis or at-risk mental state.

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          Most cited references 420

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          Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in first-episode schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder: an open randomised clinical trial.

          Second-generation antipsychotic drugs were introduced over a decade ago for the treatment of schizophrenia; however, their purported clinical effectiveness compared with first-generation antipsychotic drugs is still debated. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotic drugs with that of a low dose of haloperidol, in first-episode schizophrenia. We did an open randomised controlled trial of haloperidol versus second-generation antipsychotic drugs in 50 sites, in 14 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18-40 years, and met diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder. 498 patients were randomly assigned by a web-based online system to haloperidol (1-4 mg per day; n=103), amisulpride (200-800 mg per day; n=104), olanzapine (5-20 mg per day; n=105), quetiapine (200-750 mg per day; n=104), or ziprasidone (40-160 mg per day; n=82); follow-up was at 1 year. The primary outcome measure was all-cause treatment discontinuation. Patients and their treating physicians were not blinded to the assigned treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN68736636. The number of patients who discontinued treatment for any cause within 12 months was 63 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 72%) for haloperidol, 32 (40%) for amisulpride, 30 (33%) for olanzapine, 51 (53%) for quetiapine, and 31 (45%) for ziprasidone. Comparisons with haloperidol showed lower risks for any-cause discontinuation with amisulpride (hazard ratio [HR] 0.37, [95% CI 0.24-0.57]), olanzapine (HR 0.28 [0.18-0.43]), quetiapine (HR 0.52 [0.35-0.76]), and ziprasidone (HR 0.51 [0.32-0.81]). However, symptom reductions were virtually the same in all the groups, at around 60%. This pragmatic trial suggests that clinically meaningful antipsychotic treatment of first-episode of schizophrenia is achievable, for at least 1 year. However, we cannot conclude that second-generation drugs are more efficacious than is haloperidol, since discontinuation rates are not necessarily consistent with symptomatic improvement.
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            The role of serotonin receptors in the action of atypical antipsychotic drugs.

             HY Meltzer,  BW Massey (2011)
            The main class of atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in current use includes the protypical atypical APD, clozapine, as well as aripiprazole, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. At clinically effective doses, these agents produce extensive blockade of serotonin (5-HT)(2A) receptors, direct or indirect stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors, and to a lesser extent, reduction in dopamine (DA) D(2) receptor-mediated neurotransmission. This contrasts with typical APDs, for example haloperidol and perphenazine, which are mainly DA D(2/)D(3) receptor antagonists and have weaker, if any, potency as 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists. Some, but not all, atypical APDs are also effective 5-HT(2C) receptor inverse agonists or neutral antagonists, 5-HT(6) or 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists. This diverse action on 5-HT receptors may contribute to significant differences in efficacy and tolerability among the atypical APDs. There is considerable preclinical and some clinical evidence that effects on 5-HT receptors contribute to the low risk of producing extrapyramidal side effects, which is the defining characteristic of an atypical APD, the lack of elevation in plasma prolactin levels (with risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone being exceptions), antipsychotic action, and ability to improve some domains of cognition in patients with schizophrenia. The serotonergic actions of the atypical APDs, especially 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism, are particularly important to the differential effects of typical and atypical APDs to overcome the effects of acute or subchronic administration of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine, ketamine, and dizocipline (MK-801). 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation and 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonism may contribute to beneficial effects of these agents on cognition. In particular, 5-HT(7) receptor antagonism may be the basis for the pro-cognitive effects of the atypical APD, amisulpride, a D(2)/D(3) receptor antagonist, which has no effect on other 5-HT receptor. 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonism appears to contribute to the weight gain produced by some atypical APDs and may also affect cognition and psychosis via its influence on cortical and limbic dopaminergic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and haloperidol versus placebo in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

              Aripiprazole is an investigational agent for treating schizophrenia that has a novel pharmacologic profile. The present study investigated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of aripiprazole and haloperidol compared with placebo. A 4-week, double-blind, randomized study, conducted at 36 U.S. centers between July 1997 and June 1998, compared aripiprazole (15 mg/day, 30 mg/day) to placebo, with haloperidol (10 mg/day) as an active control. Fixed doses of each agent were administered from day 1 throughout the study. A total of 414 patients with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized. Efficacy measures included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total, PANSS positive, PANSS negative, PANSS-derived Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) core, Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Severity of Illness, and mean CGI-Improvement scores. Safety and tolerability evaluations included extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), weight gain, serum prolactin level, and QTc interval. Both doses of aripiprazole and haloperidol, 10 mg, produced statistically significant (p < or = .05) improvements from baseline in PANSS total, PANSS positive, PANSS-derived BPRS core, and CGI-Severity scores and significantly lower CGI-Improvement scores at endpoint, compared with placebo. Aripiprazole, 15 mg, and haloperidol, 10 mg, significantly improved PANSS negative score compared with placebo. Both aripiprazole doses and haloperidol separated from placebo for PANSS total scores at week 2. Unlike haloperidol, aripiprazole was not associated with significant EPS or prolactin elevation at endpoint compared with placebo. There were no statistically significant differences in mean changes in body weight across the treatment groups versus placebo, and no patients receiving aripiprazole experienced clinically significant increases in QTc interval. Aripiprazole, effective against positive and negative symptoms, is a safe and well-tolerated potential treatment for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                marc.de.hert@uc-kortenberg.be
                Journal
                CNS Drugs
                CNS Drugs
                CNS Drugs
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                1172-7047
                1179-1934
                28 March 2014
                28 March 2014
                2014
                : 28
                : 421-453
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, University Psychiatric Centre, Catholic University Leuven, Kortenberg, Belgium
                [ ]Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), Rome, Italy
                Article
                157
                10.1007/s40263-014-0157-3
                4022988
                24677189
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

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