Changes in blood flow in the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and pancreas in response to an intravenous injection of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) were determined simultaneously and continuously in anesthetized dogs, using a transit-time ultrasonic flowmeter and a laser-Doppler flowmeter. Injection of GIP significantly increased superior mesenteric arterial flow in a dose-related manner (by 9%, 43%, and 139% at 30 s after an injection at the doses of 3, 50, and 800 pmol/kg, respectively). In contrast, celiac arterial flow was not significantly altered by GIP at any of the three doses. Calculated vascular resistance in the superior mesenteric artery decreased after GIP infusion, whereas that in the celiac artery was not changed by GIP. Pancreatic blood flow decreased significantly after GIP injection at the doses of 50 and 800 pmol/kg (by 11% and 17%, respectively). Our data indicate that there is a substantial difference in the hemodynamic responses to GIP among splanchnic organs, and suggest that GIP acts specifically on the mesenteric vasculature.